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Modern Language and Literature

Asian Studies Courses

ASIA 120. Asian Cinemas. 4 Units.

This is an introductory course on Asian films that focuses on how contemporary films from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and India represent their people, re-imagine their cultural identities, and negotiate the local and global, tradition and modernity. Possible topics include the relationship between film and literary/cultural discourses, and traditional aesthetic praxis; different film genres; visual images and cinematic techniques; and various thematic concerns. The course aims to both expand the knowledge of the cinematic and socio-historical contexts of Asian cinemas and to enhance critical thinking. Lectures and readings are in English; all films have English subtitles. (FILM, GE2C)

ASIA 124. Society, Gender and Culture in East Asia. 4 Units.

The major social, gender and cultural issues in contemporary China, Japan and South Korea are emphasized in the global and local political and economic contexts. The course takes a multidisciplinary approach in reading and examining theoretical, literary and filmic texts. The course satisfies Asian Language and Studies Major, Chinese and Japanese minors. (GE1C)

ASIA 130. East Asian Literature. 4 Units.

This course is an introduction of East Asian Literature through the reading of selected works in translation. The purpose of the course is to provide the student with an overview of modern Chinese, Korean, and Japanese literature, and the larger historical and cultural context within which it developed. There are no prerequisites: the course is open to all students who wish to expand their intellectual horizons and to enjoy lively and culturally significant reading.

ASIA 193. Special Topics. 1 or 4 Unit.

Chinese Courses

CHIN 011A. First-Year Chinese, First Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing at the first semester level. A focus is on the Chinese culture, and the course includes a labratory. (GE2A)

CHIN 011B. First-Year Chinese, Second Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing at the second semester level. A focus is on the Chinese culture, and teh course includes a labratory. Prerequisite: CHIN 011A with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE2A)

CHIN 023. Intermediate Chinese, Third Semester. 4 Units.

Chinese culture and society is examined through readings, videos, conversations on daily life and cultural behaviors in China. Emphasis is on the development of critical thinking as well as 4-skills proficiency in Chinese language at the intermediate level. Prerequisite: CHIN 011B with a "C-" or better or permission of the instructor. (GE1C)

CHIN 025. Intermediate Chinese, Fourth Semester. 4 Units.

This course is a continuation of cultural themes begun in CHIN 023. Chinese culture and society is examined through readings, videos, conversations on Chinese cultural behaviors and social issues. There is a continued emphasis on developing critical thinking as well as proficiency of 4-skills in Chinese language at the intermediate level. Prerequisite: CHIN 023 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE1C)

CHIN 125. Advanced Chinese I. 4 Units.

Students examine selective readings in Chinese that focus on traditions and social issues in contemporary Chinese speaking regions (China and Taiwan). This course continues training in reading, writing, and conversation at an advanced level. Prerequisite: CHIN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE1C)

CHIN 126. Advanced Chinese II. 4 Units.

Students examine selective readings in Chinese that focus on Chinese literature and culture. This course continues training in reading, writing and conversation at an advanced level. Prerequisite: CHIN 125 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor.

CHIN 191. Independent Study. 2-4 Units.

French Courses

FREN 011A. First-Year French, First Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of understanding, speaking, reading and writing at the first semester level. A communicative and cultural approach is the focus and students with previous experience in French are initially placed in accordance with their linguistic proficiency. Placement is subject to continual re-evaluation. (GE2A)

FREN 011B. First-Year French, Second Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of understanding, speaking, reading and writing at the second semester level. A communicative and cultural approach is the focus, and placement is subject to continual re-evaluation. Prerequistite: FREN 011A with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE2A)

FREN 023. Intermediate French, Third Semester. 4 Units.

Culture and civilization through a study of current issues and events in the press, cinema, and fiction. Integrated acquisition and review of grammar as a functioning language system. Prerequisite: FREN 011B with a "C-" or better, or permission of the instructor. (GE1C)

FREN 025. Intermediate French, Fourth Semester. 4 Units.

Students continue and expand on cultural themes begun in FREN 023 that include current issues and events in the press, cinema, and fiction. The course includes an integrated acquisition and review of grammar as a functioning system. Prerequisite: FREN 023 with a "C-" or better, or permission of the instructor. (GE1C)

FREN 051. French Literature in English. 4 Units.

A study of selected themes, periods, and genres in French and Francophone literature is examined. For specific topics, see FREN 124, FREN 122, and FREN 128. All readings, discussions, lectures, and exams are in English. This course is applicable to French Studies Majors, Minors, Gender Studies minor and all interested students. (GE2A, GEND)

FREN 107. Introduction to French of Business and Economics. 4 Units.

French language is studied with a focus on the cultures of business, politics, and social science. This course uses mass media and documents from business and world events to prepare students for work in professional settings. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor.

FREN 110. Grammaire, Composition et Discussion. 4 Units.

The essential principles of written and oral expression in French at the advanced level is covered, and the course focuses on essays, non-fiction, current events, film, and other media. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor.

FREN 112. Civilisation Française A. 4 Units.

Topics in the culture and civilization of France from the Middle Ages through the 17th century are covered with a focus on scholastic and gothic cultures; Renaissance connections around the world; politics and the arts; and court culture of the Sun King. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor.

FREN 114. Civilisation Française B. 4 Units.

Topics in the culture and civilization of France from the 18th century to the present are covered and studies include philosophers and revolutionaries, development of literary culture, avant-gardes, multi-cultural France, and the French nation within Europe. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor.

FREN 116. Littérature Française A. 4 Units.

An introductory study of French literature from the Middle Ages through the 18th century. Includes works by Chretien de Troyes, Marie de France, Rabelais, Villon, Louise Labbe, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Mme de Stael, Rousseau, Graffigny, Diderot, Beaumarchais, and others. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor.

FREN 118. Littérature Française B. 4 Units.

An introductory study of French literature from the 19th century to the present. Includes works by Balzac, Sand, Flaubert, Zola, Proust, Colette, Gide, Modiano, Duras and others. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor.

FREN 120. Le Cinema Francais/French Cinema in English. 4 Units.

Students study the development of French cinema from its inception to the present through the analysis of themes, culture, styles, and cinematography. Directors who are studied include Lumiere, Melies, Vigo, Gance, Renoir, Carne, Godard, Truffaut, Resnais, Chabrol, Tavenier, Varda, Cantet, Kassovitz and others. The course is in French. Occassionally offered in English with no prerequisite. (Course is applicable to the French Studies Track in French or English version.) Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of the instructor. (FILM, GE2C)

FREN 122. La Francophonie. 4 Units.

The course examines studies in the literature and film of French-speaking Africa, the Antilles, and/or Canada. Emphasis is on issues of language, race, gender, power, cultural-identity, and international development. The course is in French, and it is occasionally offered in English as FREN 051. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of the instructor. (GE1C)

FREN 124. Individu et Societe. 4 Units.

This course is the exploration of the construction of the self and its relation to the social in various periods in French culture through literature and film. The course focuses on universality and difference, the autobiographical project, social determinism, exclusion and revolt. Students examine works by Madame de Lafayette, Laclos, Rousseau, Votaire, Diderot, Balzac, Sand, Baudelaire, Flaubert, Zola, Gide, Camus, Ba, Modiano and others. This course is occasionally offered in English as FREN 051. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of the instructor.

FREN 126. Penseurs et Philosophes. 4 Units.

Students study the French moralists, essayists and philosophers from the Renaissance to the present with a focus on the history of French though and its preferred fields of speculation. Selected readings are from Montaigne, Pascal, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Sartre, Camus, de Beauvoir, Foucault, Wittig and others. This course is taught in French. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of the instructor.

FREN 128. Images et Voix de Femmes. 4 Units.

Students study images and voices of women from medieval times to the present. The course includes an analysis of "la condition feminine" in the French literary and cultural context with a focus on authors that include Marie de France, Louis Labe, Mme de Lafayette, George Sand, Colette, Wittig, Nemirovsky and others. The course is in French. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of the instructor. It is occasionally offered in English as FREN 051. May be repeated with permission of the instructor. (GEND)

FREN 130. L'Adaptation cinématographique. 4 Units.

This is a study of the aesthetics of film adaptation in French cinema. Readings of major works of French and Francophone literature adapted to the screen: Zola, Maupassant, Gide, Duras, Balzac, Diderot, Laferriere and others. The course includes discussion of cross-cultural film adaptations. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor.

FREN 191. Etudes Independantes. 2-4 Units.

This course is ordinarily limited to majors in their senior year.

German Courses

GERM 011A. First-Year German, First Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of understanding, speaking, reading and writing at the first semester level. The focus is on a cultural approach and the course includes a laboratory. (GE2A)

GERM 011B. First-Year German, Second Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of understanding, speaking, reading and writing at the second semester level. The course is on a cultural approach and the course includes a laboratory. Placement is subject to continual re-evaluation. Prerequisite: GERM 011A with a "C-" or better, or permission of instructor. (GE2A)

GERM 023. Intermediate German, Third Semester. 4 Units.

Culture and civilization of the German-speaking countries are examined through readings, conversations, and videos about daily life and customs in Germany, Austria and Switzerland as well as exploration of German-language web sites. this course is an integrated review of German as a functioning language-system. Prerequisite: GERM 011B with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE1C)

GERM 025. Intermediate German, Fourth Semester. 4 Units.

This course is a continuation of the cultural themes begun in GERM 023. This course explores culture and civilization of the German-speaking countries through readings, conversations, and videos about daily life and customs in Germany, Austria and Switzerland as well as exploration of German-language web sites. The course includes a continuation of the integrated review of German as a functioning language-system. Prerequisite: GERM 023 with a "C-" or better or permission of the instructor. (GE1C)

GERM 191. Independent Study. 2-4 Units.

Senior standing.

Japanese Courses

JAPN 011A. First-Year Japanese, First Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing at the first semester level. The focus is on a cultural approach, and the course includes a laboratory. (GE2A)

JAPN 011B. First-Year Japanese, Second Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing at the second semester level. The focus is on a cultural approach, and the course includes a laboratory. Prerequisite: JAPN 011 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE2A)

JAPN 023. Intermediate Japanese, Third Semester. 4 Units.

Students examine Japanese culture and society through readings, videos, conversations on Japanese cultural behaviors and social issues. The emphasis is on developing critical thinking as well as proficiency of 4-skills in Japanese language at the intermediate level. Prerequisite: JAPN 011B with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE1C)

JAPN 025. Intermediate Japanese, Fourth Semester. 4 Units.

This course is a continuation of cultural themes begun in JAPN 023. Students examine Japanese culture and society through readings, videos, conversations on Japanese cultural behaviors and social issues. A continued emphasis is on developing critical thinking as well as proficiency of 4-skills in Japanese language at the intermediate level. Prerequisite: JAPN 023 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE1C)

JAPN 125. Advanced Japanese I. 4 Units.

Selective readings in Japanese focus on traditions and social issues in contemporary Japan. Students continue training in reading, writing and conversation at an advanced level. Prerequisite: JAPN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE1C)

JAPN 126. Advanced Japanese II. 4 Units.

Selective readings in Japanese focus on Japanese literature and culture. Students continue training in reading, writing and conversation at an advanced level. Prerequisite: JAPN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor.

JAPN 170. Japanese Literature in Translation. 4 Units.

A survey of Japanese literature from the 8th century to the present is covered with an emphasis on the unique body of prose, poetry and drama that developed during this thousand-year epoch - mostly in relative isolation from the rest of the world - which represents a brilliant literary heritage rarely matched anywhere in the world. This course is taught in English.

JAPN 180. Modern Japanese Fiction. 4 Units.

Students study Japanese fiction as a literary genre after 1867 and up to the present. This course examines representative works by Natsume Soseki and Mori Ogai, the greatest figures among the early modern novelists, and also deals with several leading authors of the post-war period that include Mishima Yukio and Abe Kobo. The readings are in Japanese. Prerequisite: JAPN 125 or JAPN 126 with a "C-" or better, or permission of the instructor.

JAPN 191. Independent Study. 2-4 Units.

Senior standing.

Language Courses

LANG 011A. First Year Language, 1st Sem. 4 Units.

LANG 011B. First Year Language, 2nd Sem. 4 Units.

LANG 023. Intermediate Language, 3rd Sem. 4 Units.

LANG 025. Intermediate Language, 4th Sem. 4 Units.

LANG 087. Internship in Applied Language. 2-4 Units.

This course provides opportunities to use language(s) studied under supervised conditions in a professional venue, either in local schools and businesses or in study-abroad internships. Registration is subject to departmental approval and is ordinarily limited to advanced students. Pass/No credit grading only.

LANG 089. Practicum. 2 Units.

This course is designed to give the student opportunity to work with language in practical situations under supervised conditions. Permission of the instructor is required for registration. Registration is ordinarily limited to advanced students who are registered in another course in the same language. Pass/No credit grading only.

LANG 191. Independent Study. 2-4 Units.

LANG 193. Special Topics. 1-4 Units.

LANG 197. Undergraduate Research. 2-4 Units.

This course provides opportunity for qualified students majoring in a language in the Department of Modern Language and Literature to complete a supervised original research project. Students are encouraged to travel to collections and use unique materials and resources in developing an original paper or other public presentation of their findings.

Spanish Courses

SPAN 011A. First-Year Spanish, First Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of understanding, speaking, reading and writing at the first semester level. The focus in on a communicative approach, anf the course includes a laboratory. (GE2A)

SPAN 011B. First-Year Spanish, Second Semester. 4 Units.

Students begin training in the basic language skills of understanding, speaking, reading and writing at the second semester level. The focus is on a communicative approach, and the course includes a laboratory. Placement is subject to continual reevaluation. Prerequisite: SPAN 011A with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE2A)

SPAN 023. Intermediate Spanish, Third Semester. 4 Units.

Students examine culture and civilization of the Hispanic world through readings, videos and conversations on daily life and culture in the Hispanic world. The course also includes rapid review of Spanish language as a functioning system. Prerequisite: SPAN 011B with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE1C)

SPAN 025. Intermediate Spanish, Fourth Semester. 4 Units.

This course is a continuation of the cultural themes students study in SPAN 023. Students examine culture and civilization of the Hispanic world through readings, videos and conversations on daily life and culture in the Hispanic world. The course continues review of Spanish language as a functioning system. Prerequisite: intermediate SPAN 023 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. (GE1C)

SPAN 027. Conversación. 4 Units.

This course is an intermediate level course that develops social skills in a Hispanic context. the emphasis is directed to the practical interpersonal skills important to every day living as well as those cultural manifestations inherent in speaking Spanish among native speakers. Prerequisite: SPAN 011B with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. May be repeated once for credit.

SPAN 029. Leng/cultura hispanohablantes. 4 Units.

Heritage speakers study the formal use of Spanish and the diverse cultures of Latin American communities in the US. Through literature, art, music, cinema and essay students hone their skills in writing, grammar, orthography, and advanced reading comprehension, while they learn about standard versus vernacular usages, and cross language interference. This course meets the College of the Pacific language requirement. Prerequisite: Course requires native speaking ability in Spanish.

SPAN 089. Practicum. 1-4 Units.

SPAN 101. Composición avanzada. 4 Units.

This course prepares students for formal writing in Spanish in academic and professional contexts. Course includes grammar review and vocabulary building. Prerequisite recommended: SPAN 025 or SPAN 029 with a "C-" or better.

SPAN 103. Introducción a la literatura hispánica. 4 Units.

This course is a systematic survey of Hispanic literature. The course addresses topics as the function of literature, the analysis and interpretation of texts, literary periods, movements and trends. Recommended: SPAN 025 or SPAN 029 or SPAN 101 with a "C-" or better. (GE2A)

SPAN 110. Civilización hispanoamericana. 4 Units.

This course is a systematic survey of Hispanic-American civilization from pre-Columbian times to the modern era. Special attention is paid to the Incas, Aztecs and Mayans. The course may include national and regional historic, political, economic and cultural developments and their impact on Hispanic life. Prerequisite recommended: SPAN 101 with a "C-" or better.

SPAN 112. Civilización española. 4 Units.

This course is a systematic survey of Hispanic literature and an overview of Spanish Peninsular culture and history through literature and art. Representative works from the Middle Ages to the contemporary period are studied in the context of intellectual history and local and international historic developments. Prerequisite recommended: SPAN 101 with a "C-" or better.

SPAN 114. Cine hispano/Hispanic Film. 4 Units.

A study of the development of Latin American or Peninsular cinema through the analysis of themes, styles, and cinematic techniques. Themes include Latin American women film directors or films of Pedro Almodovar, among others. The course is taught in Spanish. Films in Spanish have English subtitles. The course is occasionally offered in English. (FILM, GE2C, GEND)

SPAN 122. Literatura mexicana. 4 Units.

This course is an in-depth analysis of 20th Century Mexican literature, includes narrative, poetry, drama, and essay. Themes taught include Mexican Revolution, Avant-Garde, Modern Novel, Latin American Boom, and Postmodernism. The course includes concurrent study of Mexican culture through literary supplement La Jornada Semanal; art of Deigo Rivera, Frida Kahlo, and their contemporaries; New Mexican Cinema; current politics; contemporary music; and food. Prerequisite recommended: SPAN 101 or SPAN 103 with a "C-" or better.

SPAN 124. Escritores hispanos en los Estados Unidos. 4 Units.

This course is a systematic survey of U.S. Latino literature. This course provides an overall view of Hispanic literature in the United States with emphasis on the literature of one or more of its major groups: Mexican-Americans, Cuban-Americans, or "Nuyoricans." This course may be repeated with permission of the instructor. Recommended: SPAN 101 or SPAN 103 with a "C-" or better. (DVSY, ETHC)

SPAN 126. Poesía hispánica. 4 Units.

A study the poetry of the Spanish-speaking world. Writers, periods and regional focus vary from medieval Spain to contemporary Latin America. The changing emphasis of the course ranges from the Middle Ages to the mysticism of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Modernismo, Vanguardias, Las generaciones del '98 y del '27 and poesia social with authors such as Jorge Manrique, Garcilaso, Becquer, Dario, Machado, Lorca, Neruda, Vallejo, Paz, Parra, and Mistral among many others. Prerequisite recommended: SPAN 101 or SPAN 103 with a "C-" or better.

SPAN 128. Teatro hispánico. 4 Units.

A study of the works of major playwrights of the Spanish-speaking world. Writers, periods and regional focus varies. Prerequisite recommended: SPAN 101 or SPAN 103 with a "C-" or better.

SPAN 132. Literatura española. 4 Units.

This course is a survey of peninsular Spanish literature from its origins in the Middle Age up to the present. Students read and analyze texts of several genres including poetry, prose and theater presented in chronological order. In the analysis of the works we pay attention not just to the literary techniques employed by their authors corresponding with the literary fashions of their time but also explore the social, historical, ideological, religious, philosophical, aesthetical and political backgrounds that contributed to their creation. At the end of the semester the students learn the basic components of literary analysis and be familiarized with the origin and evolution of the main genres: poetry, prose and drama.

SPAN 133. Don Quijote. 4 Units.

A study of the major themes and social-historical context of Cervantes' masterpiece with a broad consideration of the human experience from the middle ages to present day. The course is an interdisciplinary approach that includes topics ranging from knights, religious conflicts, racism, economics and politics to classical literature, Joseph Campbell, soap operas, sitcoms, Star Wars, Velazquez, Magritte and Woody Allen. Recommended: SPAN 101 and SPAN 103 with a "C-" or better. Not recommended for freshmen. (GE2A)

SPAN 134. Literatura latinoamericana. 4 Units.

This course is a broad overview of Latin American literature. Focus of the course varies but ranges form pre-Columbian through 21st Century works. Reading is enriched and contextualized through a multi-disciplinary approach that may include history, art, architecture, geography, popular culture and film.

SPAN 135. Literatura del boom latinoamericano. 4 Units.

This course is an analytical study of the novels of Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Carlos Fuentes, and Mario Vargas Llosa, among others. The writers of the "Boom" are an important focus in the overview of literary trends as well as the cultures of Columbia, Mexico, Peru, Argentina, Chile, and other Latin American countries. Recommended: SPAN 101 and SPAN 103 with a "C-" or better.

SPAN 141. Sintaxis, semántica y morfología. 4 Units.

This course is an overview of syntaxes, semantics and morphology within the context of Spanish linguistics that focuses on pedagogical descriptions to explain the structure of language as a complete system. The course is designed to facilitate the understanding and teaching of Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 101 with a "C-" or better or permission of instructor. This course requires a high level of proficiency in Spanish. Not recommended for freshmen.

SPAN 143. Fonética y fonología. 4 Units.

This course is an overview of phonetics and phonology within the context of Spanish linguistics. This course focuses on the study of the sound system of the Spanish language, the mechanics of sound production, the manner in which the language has organized these sounds into a system of logical relationships, and the way geographical, social and ethnic variations are made manifest through that system. Prerequisite: SPAN 141 with a "C-" or better. Not recommended for freshmen.

SPAN 191. Independent Study. 2-4 Units.

SPAN 193. Special Topics. 4 Units.

Oral Communication

1. Produce and give descriptive, narrative and/or analytical presentations with all basic structures and tenses in target language.
2. Orally express complex ideas and analyses in target language.
3. Evaluate, analyze, and report on complex texts.

Written Communication

1.Produce a descriptive, narrative and critical essay with all basic structures and tenses in target language.
2. Express complex ideas and analyses in target language.
3. Evaluate, analyze, and integrate academic articles into arguments.

Reading

1. Read and understand target language fiction and non-fiction texts.
2. Classify, summarize, infer, compare, explain, and critique readings.

Culture/Civilization

1. Identify and differentiate major periods of artistic and cultural production.
2. Analyze and synthesize characteristics of literary and cultural texts.
3. Identify, distinguish, and interpret cultural differences, cross-cultural and ethical issues.

Integrated Skills

1. Explain, illustrate, and evaluate critical elements of target language texts in class discussions.
2. Conceive of ideas and opinions and discuss them with others.

Modern Language and Literature Faculty

Traci Roberts-Camps, Chair and Professor, 2005, BA, Willamette University, 1999; MA, University of California, Riverside, 2001; PhD, 2004.

Martin Camps, Professor, 2005, BA, Instituto de Comunicacion y Filosofia, Mexico City, 1997; MFA, University of Texas, El Paso, 1999; PhD, University of California, Riverside, 2003.

Zeljko Cipris, Professor, 2000, MA, Columbia University, 1987; MPhil, 1987; PhD, 1994.

Cosana Eram, Associate Professor, 2012, Ph.D, Stanford University, 2010; MA University of Bucharest, Romania, 1998, BA University of Bucharest, Romania (1993).

Arturo Giraldez, Professor, 1990, BA, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1976; MA, 1979; PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1990; PhD, Amsterdam University, 1999.

Susan C. Giráldez, Associate Professor, 1994, BA, University of the Pacific, 1980; MA, Middlebury College, 1982; PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1992.

Jie Lu, Professor, 1996, BA, Beijing Second Foreign Language Institute, Beijing, 1982; MA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1990; PhD, Stanford University, 1996.