Cosana Eram, Director

Phone: 209.946.2920

Minors Offered

Gender Studies

The Gender Studies Program at Pacific is a thriving interdisciplinary consortium of faculty and students committed to both a curricular and cultural environment supportive of the study of gender. We are interested in how gender intersects with definitions of nationality, race, ethnicity, and class; and how gender identities are constantly redefined over time. By exploring the relationship between gender identity and cultural meaning, we prepare students to think comparatively, structurally, and critically about their experiences and impact on the world. The dialogue we foster among the liberal arts, natural sciences, and the professions enriches the intellectual life of Pacific’s students and faculty, as well as our surrounding community.

Minor in Gender Studies

Students must complete a minimum of 20 units and 5 courses with a Pacific minor grade point average of 2.0 in order to earn a minor in gender studies.

Minor Requirements:

GEND 011Introduction to Gender Studies4
Electives (Four from the other approved courses list)16


Note: 1) Only 2 of these courses can be taken in the same department. 2) There are special topics courses, frequently offered, which may be included toward the minor requirement.

Gender Studies Courses

GEND 011. Introduction to Gender Studies. 4 Units.

This course explores the social construction of masculinities and femininities throughout history and in the contemporary world. Students learn about the differences between sex and gender, the relationship of gender to power, and the ways in which gender is inscribed in various cultural discourses and practices. A multi-disciplinary analysis is incorporated throughout the course. (DVSY, GE1A, GEDI, GEGR, GEND)

GEND 191. Independent Study. 2-4 Units.

GEND 197. Undergraduate Research. 1-4 Units.

Other Gender Studies Courses

ARTH 114. 20th Century Art and Film. 4 Units.

Major styles of the 20th century that include Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism, Surrealism, etc., and their appearance in visual arts, theater design, and film are explored. Students also evaluate how Western European artists borrowed imagery from other cultures and their relationship to colonialist concerns. Students also consider representations of the body and how this imagery relates to gender constructions. The effects of urbanization upon the artistic enterprise and the development of abstract and non-objective art are also considered. This course satisfies a requirement of Film Studies minor. (GE2C, GEND, GEWE)

ARTH 116. Contemporary World Art 1945 to Present. 4 Units.

This course explores major artists, styles, and movements in world art from 1945 to the present. Gestural abstraction, Pop, Photo Realism, Happenings, Video, Performance, Conceptual and Political art as well as film are a few of the trends that are considered. Ever-expanding notions of what constitutes art in this pluralistic era is also examined. This course satisfies a requirement of the Film Studies minor. (DVSY, FILM, GEAP, GEDI, GEND)

BIOL 186. Hormones and Behavior. 4 Units.

An on-line reading/discussion/writing course focusing on the bidirectional interactions between an animal's behaviors and its endocrine system. Topics include: overview of the vertebrate endocrine system, biological sex and gender issues, courtship and sex behaviors, parenting behavior, pheromonal communication, aggression and other social behaviors, learning and memory, hunger, stress, and biological rhythms. Discussions also analyze current research publications, research methodologies, and results. Students practice scientific writing and prepare a 10-12 page research paper. This course counts as an upper division elective in the Biology major and as an elective in the Gender Studies degree. Prerequisites: BIOL 051 and BIOL 061. (GEND)

ENGL 041. British Literature before 1800. 4 Units.

Spanning the 8th through the 18th centuries, this course takes us on a tour of “England” and the British Isles that makes stops in Pagan heaven, Christian Hell, earthly paradise, and the lascivious limbo of the Libertine. Along the way, we’ll read, among many other texts, Beowulf, “The Wife of Bath’s Tale,” Astrophil and Stella, Dr. Faustus, The Ducess of Malfi, Paradise Lost, and A Modest Proposal, all of which epitomize the tensions between nation and narration, gender and genre, religious piety and raucous debauchery that invigorate the literature of this extraordinary period. In particular, we will be focusing on “outliers” – those who exist outside the perceptual schemes of the culture they inhabit – specifically, the Irish, Scots, Welsh and, above all, women. In addition to challenging you not only to interpret but enjoy a variety of literary modes, including epic and lyric poetry, chivalric romance, prose satire, revenge tragedy, allegory and much more, this course will encourage you to explore these texts as historical – and ongoing – bids for authority in a culture disposed to validate the Literature of the “center” over the “literature” of the margins. (DVSY, GE2A, GEDI, GELN, GEND)

ENGL 043. British Literature after 1800. 4 Units.

This is a survey class of British literature from 1800 to the present day, a span of time that challenged what both “British” and “literature” fundamentally mean. This period saw the continued rise and the dramatic fall of Britain as an imperial power. It saw Napoleonic revolution and two world wars. Britain got smaller as its imperial boundaries eroded, but also larger as it accepted the postcolonial influx of a global population in England. This forced a continual reevaluation of not only national identity, but personal identity, identity of the family, and gender identity as well. We will be studying great and representative works of British literature against this historical backdrop of radical change. (GE2A, GELN, GEND)

ENGL 053. American Literature after 1865. 4 Units.

This study of U.S. American literature, society, and culture(s) begins in the waning days of the Civil War and closes with literature from our contemporary moment. Literary movements covered are realism, regionalism, modernism, and post-modernism, with particular attention to how these aesthetic modes relate to their historical contexts. (GE1B, GELN, GEND)

ENGL 123. Film, Literature, and the Arts. 4 Units.

This course investigates the theory, practice and critical methods underlying aesthetic form in the arts, including film, literature, painting and sculpture. Corollary illustrations are drawn from music and architecture. This comparative course attempts to examine the underlying styles and structures among the arts. (FILM, GE2C, GEAP, GEND)

ENGL 125. Critical Colloquium. 4 Units.

Students study the theory and practice of the major modes of interpreting and criticizing literature, that include but are not limited to formalist, psychoanalytic, structural, gender and feminist and deconstructionist perspectives offered by designated English Department members and guest lecturers. (GEND)

ENGL 126. Environmental Health and Literature. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to a wide range of perspectives on the intimate connections between the environment and human health. As the COVID-19 pandemic indicates, the beliefs, values, political systems, and cultural practices can transform the living environment, alter how we relate to other species, and affect our health and our risk for infections. Given the global scale of climate change and its root causes of ecological degradation, the scope of our study will be both local and global; the readings are from natural, social sciences, and the humanities; and the approaches are interdisciplinary. (DVSY, ENST, ETHC, GEGR, GEND)

ENGL 127. Contemporary Critical Issues. 4 Units.

Students examine major aspects of literary theory from structuralism to post-structuralism. The course focuses on the interplay between and among such movements as deconstruction, post-colonialism, the new historicism, phenomenology and psychoanalysis. The course also discusses how contemporary theory has impacted such topics as gender, canon, reader-response and post-modernism. (GEND)

ENGL 131. Shakespeare. 4 Units.

Throughout his extraordinary dramatic career, Shakespeare wore many masks: lover, misogynist, royalist, traitor, poetic genius, racist and, most emphatically, double-agent. Nothing could be more evocative of the many faces of William Shakespeare than his unrelenting afterlives on screen. In this course, we will focus on the ways in which Shakespeare’s characters – specifically, bastards, moors, and whores – instantiate and disturb categories of “difference” that otherwise exist to shore up the boundaries of the “normal”. These profoundly non-normative characters, often deemed secondary or minor, are in many cases the unacknowledged engines of the plot, as well as envoys of the message (particularly in their contemporary cinematic incarnations) that the lechery and treachery afoot in Renaissance England is alive and well in the tribalism of our own times. (DVSY, FILM, GE2A, GEDI, GELN, GEND)

ENGL 135. Major American Authors. 4 Units.

This course is an advanced, in-depth analysis of an individual author (or pair of authors) including aesthetic qualities of the work throughout the author's career, historical and cultural contexts shaping the work, literary influences on the author's writing and thought, influence on other writers, and major scholarship about the work. Students conduct directed research. By semester the focus of the course changes to include authors such as Twain, Dickinson & Whitman, Ellison & Wright, Faulkner & Morrison, Frost & Stevens, Kingston & Tan, Melville, Steinbeck & Dos Passos. This course may be repeated once for credit with a different focus. (GEND)

ENGL 141. Topics in British Literature Pre-1800. 4 Units.

This course studies a single literary period designed to strengthen students' critical reading and writing skills as well as examine questions of literary themes, cultural and intellectual context, national identity, ethnicity, class, and/or gender. Student conduct directed research. Topics vary with titles such as The Age of Beowulf, The Medieval Mind, English Renaissance, Women Writers before Austen, and The Age of Unreason: 18th Century Literature. This course may be repeated once for credit with a different focus. (DVSY, GE2B, GEDI, GEND, GEWE)

ENGL 144. Medival Women Readers and Writers. 4 Units.

What did women write before 16th century? Who was the readership of their texts? How did male authors represent women in medieval literature? What did their books look like before the advent of print? This course explores the intellectual life of medieval women in relationship to their socio-cultural and historical contexts. We will look at women as readers and producers of literature and try to understand how these roles were reconcilable to women’s many other roles, such as mother, wife, businesswoman, etc. In addition, we will examine how women are represented in manuscript illuminations, and how images shape early readers’ interpretations and contribute to the process of making meaning. Readings are grouped according to the sociocultural context in which works about (and by) women were produced, though we will see that some texts resist such simplistic classifications. (DVSY, GE2B, GEDI, GEND, GEWE)

ENGL 145. Diagnosis. 4 Units.

Each of the readings for this course explores experiences and meanings of diagnosis, treatment, and recovery/understanding of illness. Genres include a novel, poetry, a play, and literary nonfiction. Questions considered include: a) What roles do narrative and empathy play in effective diagnosis? b) How does culture frame an understanding of illness? c) Why is pain so difficult to capture in language? and d) How do different sorts of language (jargon, dialect, professional) enable and/or undermine understanding? Students will write analytical essays, conduct an interview, and create a creative interpretation of an assigned text. Prerequisites: WRIT 21 (fundamental skills in writing) and CORE 002 as a Corequisite or Prerequisite. (DVSY, GE2B, GELN, GEND)

ENGL 153. Topics in American Literature after 1865. 4 Units.

This course is an in-depth analysis of significant literary periods or movements in America after 1865. Topics change while the course examines the signature features of a specific period or movement: its aesthetic and thematic concerns, as well as the political, economic, intellectual, and cultural contexts shaping and shaped by the literature in question. Possible titles include American Realism, American Modernism, Modern American Novel, American Nature Writing, Literature of the American South, Literature of California, Contemporary American Fiction, and Contemporary American poetry. This course may be repeated once for credit with a different focus. (GEND)

ENGL 161. Topics in American Ethnic Literature. 4 Units.

Studies of contributors to American Literature within the context of their shared ethnicity are the focus of this course. Topics change and possible offerings include American Immigrant Literature, African-American Poetry, Black Women Writers, Blues, Jazz and Literature, and Chicano/a Literature. This course may be repeated once for credit with a different focus. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B, GEDI, GELN, GEND)

ENGL 162. Asian American Literature. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to the representative works of major contemporary Asian American writers. We will examine the thematic concerns, innovative use of language and narrative strategies, and aesthetic styles of a diverse group of authors with various ethnic backgrounds. Our inquiry includes the ways in which Asian American writers intervene in the master narrative of history as a mode of identity construction and knowledge production, through counter-memory, which re-represents, re-imagines the past from transnational perspectives for better understanding of the world we live in. Our analyses of the texts will draw from relevant critical theories and secondary sources. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1C, GEDI, GELN, GEND)

FREN 051. French Literature in English. 4 Units.

A study of selected themes, periods, and genres in French and Francophone literature is examined. For specific topics, see FREN 124, FREN 122, and FREN 128. All readings, discussions, lectures, and exams are in English. This course is applicable to French Studies Majors, Minors, Gender Studies minor and all interested students. (GE2A, GELN, GEND)

FREN 128. Images et Voix de Femmes. 4 Units.

Students study images and voices of women from medieval times to the present. The course includes an analysis of "la condition feminine" in the French literary and cultural context with a focus on authors that include Marie de France, Louis Labe, Mme de Lafayette, George Sand, Colette, Wittig, Nemirovsky and others. The course is in French. Prerequisite: FREN 025 with a "C-" or better or permission of the instructor. It is occasionally offered in English as FREN 051. May be repeated with permission of the instructor. (GEND)

HIST 041. The Problem with Latin America. 4 Units.

Since independence from Spain in the early nineteenth century Latin America has been plagued with struggles to achieve political stability, social justice, and economic development. Though an analysis of social movements, this course focuses on salient issues in the history of the independent nations of Latin America from the 1820s to the present and emphasizes the development of diverse societies and cultures. Students examine issues of state building, labor movements, inter-regional conflicts, and interethnic relations. The course uses a variety of sources - films, lectures, readings, and discussions - in an attempt to understand how social movements shaped and were shaped by economic and political forces. Finally, the class studies how colonial legacies, neocolonial ties and globalization have affected Latin America and its people. (GE1C, GEND, GESO)

HIST 065. Women and War. 4 Units.

This course takes an international approach to studying the history of women and war. The objective is to better understand how women’s experience during war has changed over time and differed for women in a variety of countries. The class begins by studying the mythology of women and war, connecting ancient Greek war goddess Athena with present-day Hollywood depictions of women warriors. Lectures then focus on the theories positioning women in war history, and proceeds with a survey of women’s participation in several modern wars, comparing women’s experience in the U.S. with women in other parts of the world. Finally, the course ends with an in-depth discussion of several key themes in the histories of women and war: domestic ideology, prostitution, nursing, soldiering, war work, and protest/peace politics. (GEND)

HIST 113. Global Europe from WWII to 9/11. 4 Units.

This course starts out with a look at the physical, economic, political and moral impacts of World War II on Europe and the world. The challenges of reconstruction led to a bipolar global order and a Cold War world of espionage and nuclear deterrence. We will analyze the politics and cultures of the new postwar societies in Europe that were divided by the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall. While nuclear war could be averted, violence accompanied the break-up of European empires in Asia and Africa. By the 1960s, a global youth movement rebelled against consumerism, gender norms, and traditional politics. In Eastern Europe, political oppression, economic stagnation, and environmental disasters, such as the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, triggered a civil rights movement that brought down the Berlin Wall. At the beginning of the 21st the new European Union faced the global impacts of migration and integration as well as the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the wars in the Middle East. (GE1C, GEND, GEWE)

HIST 119. History Goes to Hollywood. 4 Units.

This course examines how films shape our understanding of certain historical events. It provides students with the tools to watch films critically and to place them in the context of a broader historical time period. The films selected cover different time periods from the ancient to the modern world and portray a variety of national and cultural contexts. (FILM, GE2C, GEAP, GEND)

HIST 123. Civil War Era. 4 Units.

This course begins with an analysis of events and factors leading up to the Civil War. It then examines in depth the war years covering the development of technology, leadership, military medicine, and the social experience of war for men and women, free and slave. The course concludes with a study of the immediate post-war years of Reconstruction across the nation. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B, GEDI, GEND, GESO)

HIST 133. Women in United States History. 4 Units.

The course examines the history of women in the United States from the colonial era to the present. In addition to examining political reform, it offers insights into the day-to-day lives of diverse American women at various points in the female life cycle. The course is organized chronologically and thematically to promote the study of women in relation to major historical events and to explore women's roles in families, communities, the nation, and the world. It examines cultural models of American womanhood, including maternal, domestic, sexual, and social models, their development and recent changes. The course uses various primary and secondary sources to evaluate both current and historical arguments regarding the status, roles, and experiences of American women. (DVSY, GE1B, GEDI, GEND, GESO)

HIST 135. Women in Time and Place. 4 Units.

This course applies gender studies methods to analyze current events related to women and LGBTQ+ individuals. It is global and comparative and uses historical analysis to understand several contemporary gender and/or women’s issues such as reproductive justice, women’s roles in wartime, political participation, sports and body image, health care, education, crime and punishment, and work. The course considers the perspectives and experiences of women from various social and cultural groups and understands their experiences to be intersectional. It introduces students to significant scholarship in the global history of women and gender. It also teaches the historian’s task of interpreting primary sources. (DVSY, GE2B, GEDI, GEND, GEWE)

HIST 151. People's History of Mexico. 4 Units.

This course surveys the history of Mexico from its origins in pre-Columbian civilizations to the present day. In the process, students examine major historical themes and developments - the society and culture of the Aztecs and Mayas, the distinctive features of the colonial empire, the eras of Independence and of Revolution, modernization and post-modernity - as experienced by or as expressions of the actions and aspirations of Mexico's people. The course focuses on the historical experiences and struggles of Mexico's diverse ethnic and social groups and foregrounds their roles in the development of a uniquely Mexican nation. (GE1C, GEND, GESO)

HIST 167. Gender in the History of Science/Medicine/Technology. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to the literature on gender in the history of science, technology, and medicine. Students learn how to use gender to analyze scientific practice and examine how it intersects with other historical categories such as race, ethnicity, sexuality, class, and nationality. The course explores five interrelated topics: (1) The historical participation of women and men in scientific work, (2) the scientific and historical construction of sex and sexuality, (3) the influence of ideologies of gender on the methodology of science, medicine, and engineering, (4) the gendering of technologies and artifacts, (5) the relation between ideas of gender, science, and politics. Based on their increased historical understanding, students reflect upon their own gendered experiences and expectations in encountering science as students, as laboratory workers, patients, and consumers. This course is open to both science and non-science majors. (DVSY, ETHC, GE3C, GEND, GESO)

PSYC 066. Human Sexuality. 4 Units.

This course is the study of the biological, psychological and cultural bases of human sexual behavior. Topics include female and male sexual anatomy and physiology, love and communication, sexual behavior patterns, homosexuality and bisexuality, contraception, pregnancy and childbirth, sexual difficulties and sex therapy as well as sexually transmitted diseases. The course also examines changes in sexual functioning throughout the life span and it explores the development of male and female gender roles and the effect of gender roles on various aspects of life. This course is open to freshmen but does not count toward major. (GE1A, GEND)

RELI 044. Sex, Sin, and Salvation. 4 Units.

This course explores and analyzes sexuality and gender in terms of ethics and religion. It focuses primarily on historical and contemporary Christian perspectives with some attention to other religious traditions and philosophical viewpoints. Topics include such issues as sexual ethics, homosexuality, sexuality and spirituality, gender roles and connections between gender and ethical perspectives. (GE2B, GEND, GEWE)

RELI 128. Social Topics in Early Christianity. 4 Units.

Students study of one or more social issues prominent during the early stages of Christianity. Topics vary according to the interests of faculty and students. (DVSY, GEND)

SOCI 027. Sociology of Marriage and Family. 4 Units.

In this course, family life is examined through a historical, cultural and political lens to contextualize the changing institution of the family. The evolution of the family is studied both historically and comparatively, but the focus is on the contemporary U.S. family. Special attention is given to the changing significance of sexuality in marriage, the persistent gendered nature of family structure and organization, and evolving norms around childbearing and childrearing. Other topics that will be addressed include domestic violence, divorce, out-of-wedlock childbearing, and alternative family forms. The course emphasizes how family life varies across race and ethnic groups, social class, religion and geographic location. (ETHC, GEND)

SOCI 041. Social Problems. 4 Units.

This course is an exploration of the process by which various social conditions become labeled as social problems worthy of policy responses. It examines the various roles played by the media, government actors, activists and everyday citizens in this process, and pays particular attention to the role of power in enabling some social groups to label the behaviors of others as problematic while deflecting attention from their own practices. This course focuses predominantly on the US, but also engages in comparative analysis with other countries. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B, GEDI, GEGR, GEND)

SOCI 079. Self and Society. 4 Units.

This course addresses how we define and understand ourselves in relation to society. Drawing from the sub-field of micro-sociology, it examines individual and small-scale social interactions. Topics include the nature and scope of micro-sociology, the structure of social interaction, the development and maintenance of the social self, and the production and influence of culture. The course also explores the ways that hierarchies of race, class, gender and nation shape social identity. Prerequisite, may be taken concurrently: SOCI 051. (GEND)

SOCI 123. Sex and Gender. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to the sociological study of sex and gender. Sociologists define gender as a social category that is organized around perceived biological differences between men and women. As such, the study of gender is not simply the study of women. It is the study of how gender categories, identities, and institutions structure our lives and society. The course critically analyzes the sex and gender categories that organize social life and investigates how gender identities are constructed in everyday social life. Particular attention is paid to how social institutions reinforce gender identities and reproduce gender inequalities over time, as well as how sex and gender are intricately linked to other social statuses such as race, class, and sexuality. (DVSY, ETHC, GEDI, GEND)

SOCI 125. Sociology of Health and Illness. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to the sociology of medicine and the delivery of health care, with an emphasis on the interaction of patients, health care professionals, and social institutions. Topics of examination include health care settings, provider-patient relationships, ethical issues in health care, and trends in medicine and policies. Additionally, the course explores how race, class, and gender affect people’s health and illness in addition to how health policies shape the medical system, and how definitions, attitudes, and beliefs affect health and illness. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B, GEDI, GEND, GESO)

SOCI 172. Diversity, Equity and Inequality. 4 Units.

This course examines the historical causes, current structure, and various consequences of structural inequalities in the United States. It focuses on various social inequalities, including those based on class, race, gender, sexuality, disability, nationality, and immigrant status. Sociological perspectives and research are applied to better understand how social differences (diversity) become a basis for unequal access to economic, political and social power (inequality), as well as how a more equitable social system might be achieved. Prerequisites: SOCI 051, SOCI 071, and SOCI 079. (DVSY, ETHC, GEDI, GEND)

SPAN 114. Latin American Women's Film. 4 Units.

This course will introduce students to Latin American women film directors and their representations of Latin American culture and society. Students will view and critically analyze films directed by women directors from several Latin American countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru. The topics that will be covered in the course include gender representation in film, representation of the female body, race and ethnicity as portrayed in film, and the unique technical aspects of Latin American film. In this course, students will also compare gender, race, ethnicity, and socio-economic class within the Latin American and U.S. film contexts. All films will be in Spanish or Portuguese with English subtitles except for films originally in English. Lectures will be in English. Spanish majors and minors will complete all written and oral work as well as group discussions in Spanish while other majors will complete work in English. Please see catalog for further reference. (DVSY, FILM, GE2C, GEAP, GEDI, GEND)