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Geological and Environmental Sciences

http://www.pacific.edu/Academics/Schools-and-Colleges/College-of-the-Pacific/Academics/Departments-and-Programs/Earth-and-Environmental-Sciences.html
Phone: (209) 946-2482
Location: Geosciences Center, South Campus

Laura Rademacher, Chair

Degrees Offered

Bachelor of Arts
Bachelor of Science

Majors Offered

Geological & Environmental Science (BA, BS)
Environmental Studies (BA)

Minors Offered

Geology
Environmental Studies

The Bachelor of Arts in Geology is for liberal arts students with a strong interest in the earth and its environments, but who do not plan to pursue a career in geology. The breadth of a BA in geology is ideal for preparing students for professional degrees and successful careers in law, business, administration, or international relations. The Bachelor of Science in Geology prepares the student for professional employment or graduate study  in geology. Students earning a BS in geology can obtain competitive jobs in a number of geoscience areas, including geotechnical and environmental consulting, where they assess geologic hazards and environmental impacts. Other career paths include working as a geologist involved with the exploration and production of fossil fuels and other important mineral resources. An increasing emphasis on environmental issues and growing demand for natural resources, in addition to recent retirement patterns in the geosciences, create a considerable demand for well-trained geoscientists. According to the American Geological Institute, Masters and PhD-level geoscientists have experienced effectively zero unemployment during the past 20 years.

The Bachelor of Science in Environmental Science major is designed to impart students with the practical skills and knowledge required to critically evaluate environmental problems and issues and provide applied solutions. The major is decidedly interdisciplinary in nature, and focuses on the underlying natural processes that relate to the environment and understanding and employing the scientific method. The need for broadly trained scientists in the area of environmental science is critical and the understanding of the importance of this field provides many employment opportunities. A BS in Environmental Science can lead to numerous employment opportunities with many different agencies and areas. Typical employment could involve working for consulting firms performing environmental restoration, producing environmental impact studies for both governmental agencies and private firms, and additional vital biological services. Other types of employment can be found with regulatory agencies that seek to ensure compliance with environmental regulations and laws, with environmental law firms, or public health agencies. The Bachelor of Arts in Environmental Studies is for liberal arts students with an interest in environmental issues. It provides a multi-disciplinary approach to environmental issues and concerns.

Bachelor of Arts Major in Geological and Environmental Science

Students must complete a minimum of 124 units with a cumulative and major/program grade point average of 2.0 in order to earn the bachelor of arts degree with a major in geology.

I. General Education Requirements

Minimum 42 units and 12 courses that include:

PACS 001What is a Good Society4
PACS 002Topical Seminar on a Good Society4
PACS 003What is an Ethical Life?3

Note: 1) Pacific Seminars cannot be taken for Pass/No Credit. 2) Transfer students with 28 or more transfer units complete 2 additional General Education elective courses from below in place of taking PACS 001 and PACS 002.

One course from each subdivision below:

Social and Behavioral Sciences
Arts and Humanities
Natural Sciences and Mathematics
or a second IIIA Natural Sciences course

Note: 1) No more than 2 courses from a single discipline may be applied to meet the requirements of the general education program.

II. Diversity Requirement

Students must complete one diversity course (3-4 units)

Note: 1) A complete list of the courses that satisfy the requirement above is found in the front Diversity Requirement section of this catalog and the online course search. 2) Transfer students with 28 units or more transfer units prior to fall 2011 are encouraged but not required to complete a designated course prior to graduation. 3) Courses may be used also to meet general education and/or major/minor requirements.

III. College of the Pacific BA Requirement

The student must complete one year of college instruction or equivalent training in a language other than English.

Note: 1) Transfer students with sophomore standing are exempt from this requirement.

IV. Fundamental Skills

The student must demonstrate competence in:

Writing
Quantitative analysis

V. Breadth Requirement

The student must complete 64 units outside the primary discipline of the first major, regardless of the department who offers the course(s) in that discipline. (This includes general education courses, transfer courses, CPCE/EXTN units, internships, etc.)

VI. Major Requirements

GESC 102Earth Surface Processes and GIS4
GESC 103Global Change4
GESC 106Earth Materials5
GESC 148Critical Zone Science4
Select one of the following:4
Dynamic Planet
Earth and Life Through Time
Geology of California
Select one of the following:4
Environment: Concepts and Issues
Environmental Science for Informed Citizens
Soil, Water, and War
Select two of the following GECS or BIOL electives: *8-9
Vertebrate Biology
Biology of Insects
Marine Biology
Marine Birds and Mammals
California Flora
Ecology
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
Sedimentary Petrology
Structural Geology
Geochemistry
GESC 185Capstone Seminar in Geological and Environmental Sciences4
Select one of the following:4
Elementary Statistical Inference
Introduction to Statistics and Probability
Select one of the following:4
Elements of Chemistry
Fundamentals of Chem
General Chemistry
General Chemistry
*

 Electives should be selected in consultation with your advisor.

Bachelor of Science Major in Geological and Environmental Science

Students must complete a minimum of 124 units with a cumulative and major/program grade point average of 2.0 in order to earn the bachelor of science degree with a major in geology.

I. General Education Requirements

Minimum 42 units and 12 courses that include:

PACS 001What is a Good Society4
PACS 002Topical Seminar on a Good Society4
PACS 003What is an Ethical Life?3

Note: 1) Pacific Seminars cannot be taken for Pass/No Credit. 2) Transfer students with 28 or more transfer units complete 2 additional General Education elective courses from below in place of taking PACS 001 and PACS 002.

One course from each subdivision below:

Social and Behavioral Sciences
Arts and Humanities
Natural Sciences and Mathematics
or a second IIIA Natural Sciences course

Note: 1) No more than 2 courses from a single discipline may be applied to meet the requirements of the general education program.

II. Diversity Requirement

Students must complete one diversity course (3-4 units)

Note: 1) Transfer students with 28 units or more transfer units prior to fall 2011 are encouraged but not required to complete a designated course prior to graduation. 2) Courses may be used also to meet general education and/or major/minor requirements.

III. Fundamental Skills

Students must demonstrate competence in:

Writing
Quantitative analysis

IV. Breadth Requirement

Students must complete 64 units outside the primary discipline of the first major, regardless of the department who offers the course(s) in that discipline. (This includes general education courses, transfer courses, CPCE/EXTN units, internships, etc.)

V. Major Requirements

Students must complete the core courses and also select from one of the tracks below.

Core
CHEM 024Fundamentals of Chem4
GESC 102Earth Surface Processes and GIS4
GESC 103Global Change4
GESC 106Earth Materials5
GESC 148Critical Zone Science4
MATH 037Introduction to Statistics and Probability4
MATH 051Calculus I4
Select one of the following:4
Dynamic Planet
Earth and Life Through Time
Geology of California
Select one of the following:4
Environment: Concepts and Issues
Environmental Science for Informed Citizens
Soil, Water, and War
GESC 185Capstone Seminar in Geological and Environmental Sciences4
Select one of the following:4
Water and Environmental Policy
American Environmental History
Global Environmental Policy
Geology Concentration
GESC 110Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology4
GESC 112Sedimentary Petrology4
GESC 114Structural Geology4
GESC 142Geochemistry4
GESC 161Geologic Field Methods4
Select one of the following: *1-4
Internship in Geosciences
Undergraduate Research
Select one of the following:5
General Physics I
Principles of Physics I
Select one of the following:5
General Physics II
Principles of Physics II
Environmental Concentration
BIOL 051Principles of Biology5
BIOL 061Principles of Biology5
BIOL 171Methods in Field Biology4
CIVL 060Water Quality4
Select one of the following:4-5
Ecology
Ecology and Conservation Biology
Select one of the following:4
Vertebrate Biology
Biology of Insects
Marine Biology
Marine Birds and Mammals
California Flora
Select one of the following:4
Literature and the Environment
John Muir's World: Origins of the Conservation Movement
Environmental Ethics
Select one of the following:1-4
Undergraduate Research
Internship in Geosciences
Undergraduate Research
Environmental Hydrology Concentration
BIOL 051Principles of Biology5
BIOL 061Principles of Biology5
CIVL 060Water Quality4
GESC 132Foundations of Water Resources Law3
GESC 149Environmental Hydrology4
GESC 162Field Hydrology4
GESC 178Freshwater Ecology4
Select one of the following:1-4
Undergraduate Research
Internship in Geosciences
Undergraduate Research
*

 Students can also complete a Geologic field camp.

Bachelor of Arts Major in Environmental Studies

Students must complete a minimum of 124 units with a cumulative and major/program grade point average of 2.0 in order to earn the bachelor of arts degree with a major in environmental studies.

I. General Education Requirements

Minimum 42 units and 12 courses that include: 

PACS 001What is a Good Society4
PACS 002Topical Seminar on a Good Society4
PACS 003What is an Ethical Life?3

Note: 1) Pacific Seminars cannot be taken for Pass/No Credit. 2) Transfer students with 28 or more transfer units complete 2 additional General Education elective courses from below in place of taking PACS 001 and PACS 002.

One course from each subdivision below:

Social and Behavioral Sciences
Arts and Humanities
Natural Sciences and Mathematics
or a second IIIA Natural Sciences course

Note: 1) No more than 2 courses from a single discipline may be applied to meet the requirements of the general education program.

II. Diversity Requirement

Students must complete one diversity course (3-4 units)

Note: 1) Transfer students with 28 units or more transfer units prior to fall 2011 are encouraged but not required to complete a designated course prior to graduation. 2) Courses may be used also to meet general education and/or major/minor requirements.

III. College of the Pacific BA Requirement

Students must complete one year of college instruction or equivalent training in a language other than English.

Note: 1) Transfer students with sophomore standing are exempt from this requirement.

IV. Fundamental Skills

Writing
Quantitative analysis

V. Breadth Requirement

Students must complete 64 units outside the primary discipline of the first major, regardless of the department who offers the course(s) in that discipline. (This includes general education courses, transfer courses, CPCE/EXTN units, internships, etc.)

VI. Major Requirements

Select one of the following:4-5
Elements of Chemistry
Fundamentals of Chem
General Chemistry
Select two of the following:8
Environment: Concepts and Issues
Introduction to Biology
Principles of Biology
Principles of Biology
Marine Biology
Marine Birds and Mammals
California Flora
Plant Kingdom
GESC 043Environmental Science for Informed Citizens4
Select one of the following:4
Dynamic Planet
Earth and Life Through Time
Physical Geography
Geology of California
Regional Geology
Select two of the following:7-8
Water and Environmental Policy
Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
Soil, Water, and War
American Environmental History
Global Environmental Policy
Environment and Society
Select two of the following:8
Literature and the Environment
John Muir's World: Origins of the Conservation Movement
Environmental Ethics
Select one of the following:4
Elementary Statistical Inference
Introduction to Statistics and Probability
Select one of the following:3-4
Undergraduate Research
Internship in Geosciences
Undergraduate Research
Internship

VII. Concentration Requirements

Select one of the following concentrations:

Biology Concentration
BIOL 051Principles of Biology5
BIOL 061Principles of Biology5
Select one of the following:4-5
Ecology
Ecology and Conservation Biology
Select two of the following:8
Biology of Insects
Marine Biology
Marine Birds and Mammals
California Flora
Plant Kingdom
Parasitology
Geosciences Concentration
Select three of the following:12
Earth Surface Processes and GIS
Global Change
Earth Materials
Structural Geology
Geochemistry
Geomorphology
Critical Zone Science
Policy Concentration
Select three of the following:11-12
Water and Environmental Policy
Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
Soil, Water, and War
American Environmental History
Global Environmental Policy
Government in Action: Public Policy Analysis
Environment and Society

Note: 1) ECON 157 has a prerequisite of ECON 053. 2) No prerequisite of POLS 051 required for INTL 174.

Minor in Environmental Hydrology

Students must complete a minimum of 20 units with a Pacific minor grade point average of 2.0 in order to earn a minor in environmental hydrology.

Minor Requirements:

Select one of the following:4
Environmental Science for Informed Citizens
Dynamic Planet
Earth and Life Through Time
Geology of California
Regional Geology
Select two of the following:8
Foundations of Water Resources Law
Environmental Hydrology
Field Hydrology
Freshwater Ecology
Ecology
Select two of the following:8
Mineralogy
Earth Surface Processes and GIS
Global Change
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
Sedimentary Petrology
Structural Geology
Environmental Law
Critical Zone Science
Geologic Field Methods
Capstone Seminar in Geological and Environmental Sciences

Minor in Environmental Science

Students must complete a minimum of 20 units with a Pacific minor grade point average of 2.0 in order to earn a minor in environmental science.

Minor Requirements:

BIOL 051Principles of Biology5
BIOL 061Principles of Biology5
BIOL 175Ecology5
Select one of the following:4
Environmental Science for Informed Citizens
Dynamic Planet
Earth and Life Through Time
Geology of California
Regional Geology
Select one of the following:4
Mineralogy
Earth Surface Processes and GIS
Global Change
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
Sedimentary Petrology
Structural Geology
Environmental Law
Critical Zone Science
Environmental Hydrology
Geologic Field Methods
Field Hydrology
Capstone Seminar in Geological and Environmental Sciences

Minor in Geology

Students must complete a minimum of 20 units with a Pacific minor grade point average of 2.0 in order to earn a minor in geology.

Minor Requirements:

Select one of the following:4-5
Dynamic Planet
Earth and Life Through Time
Physical Geography
Earth Systems Science
Geology of California
Regional Geology
GESC Electives (4 additional courses GESC 100 and above excluding GESC 105)16

Minor in Environmental Studies

Students must complete a minimum of 20 units and 5 courses with a Pacific minor grade point average of 2.0 in order to earn a minor in environmental studies.

Minor Requirements:

Select two of the following:8-10
Environmental Geology
Environmental Science for Informed Citizens
Geology of California
Regional Geology
Environment: Concepts and Issues
California Flora
Elements of Chemistry
Fundamentals of Chem
General Chemistry
Select two of the following:7-8
Water and Environmental Policy
Global Economic Issues
Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
Soil, Water, and War
Global Environmental Policy
Select one of the following:4
Literature and the Environment
John Muir's World: Origins of the Conservation Movement
American Environmental History
Environmental Ethics

Note: 1) These courses must be different than courses taken in the major. 2) At least one of these courses needs to contain a lab. 3) ECON 157 has a prerequisite of ECON 0534) No prerequisite of POLS 051 required for INTL 174.

Geo and Enviro Sciences Courses

GESC 020. Living on Planet Earth. 1 Unit.

This course is a concurrent seminar and field work course for participants in the Residence for Earth and Environmental Living and Learning Community (REELL). Students investigate their impact on Earth and the Environment within the context of guest lectures, discussions, and activities related to global environmental change, carbon footprints, management of natural resources, and sustainability. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in the REELL community or permission of the instructor.

GESC 041. Environmental Geology. 4 Units.

This lecture and field work course studies the interaction between humans and the physical environment as well as analyzes the physical constraints placed on human activities by geological processes and the effects that human activities have on the environment. (ENST)

GESC 043. Environmental Science for Informed Citizens. 4 Units.

This interdisciplinary course of lecture, laboratory, and field work focus on the analysis of policy-relevant environmental problems in four domains: water, energy, climate and land use - with an emphasis on human interactions. (ENST, GE3A)

GESC 045. Soil, Water, and War. 4 Units.

The link between limited natural resources and human conflict along with historical and current conflicts is the focus of discussion and field work. Analysis of these conflicts allows achievement of understanding of the following: 1) water resources; 2) soil formation; 3) links between the environment and natural resources. (ENST, GE3C)

GESC 051. Dynamic Planet. 4 Units.

This course is an introduction to the fundamental concepts of geology and geological reasoning. Concepts covered include: the nature and origin of earth materials, the processes and forces which create and shape the surface of the earth and affect its internal structure within the context of deep time, as well as a study of earth resources and human interactions with the environment. The course includes laboratory and field work. Credit for this course is not given if a student has credit for GEOS 061, GESC 061, GEOS 065 or GESC 065. (ENST, GE3A)

GESC 053. Earth and Life Through Time. 4 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field study class introduces students to the geologic history of the earth as interpreted through analysis of the stratigraphic and fossil record, structural relationships and isotopic dating techniques. Particular emphasis is placed on the geologic evolution of North America. (ENST, GE3A)

GESC 055. Physical Geography. 4 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field study class examines interactions of earth’s atmosphere, organisms, rocks and soil with an emphasis placed on climate, energy and nutrient cycles, and landform evolution. (ENST)

GESC 057. Earth Systems Science. 4 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field study class introduces the study of the Earth using a systems approach. The focus is on the subsystems (geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere) and the dynamic interactions between them. The approach develops an understanding of the balance that exists in the global environment as a result of the processes within and interactions between the systems. (GE3A)

GESC 061. Geology of California. 4 Units.

This course is a lecture, laboratory, and field-based introduction to the fundamental principles of geology and geological reasoning that are reinforced during a four-day camping trip. The course involves a scientific study of the planet Earth, including earth systems, earth materials, the physical processes shaping the earth, and the history of the earth and its life forms within the context of deep time. The geologic implications of human activities on the environment, earth resources and climate change are also studied. Credit for this course is not given if a student has credit for GEOS 051, GESC 051, GEOS 065 or GESC 065. (ENST, GE3A)

GESC 065. Regional Geology. 4 Units.

This is a field intensive study of a geologically relevant area including investigations of plate tectonics, a formation of rocks and minerals, the hydrologic cycle, formation of landforms, geologic time, and climate change. Possible study regions include Hawaii, the Colorado Plateau, Chile, Costa Rica, and Alaska. This course includes laboratory work and a multi-day field trip during spring break. Credit for this course is not given if a student has credit for GEOS 051, GESC 051, GEOS 061 or GESC 061. (ENST, GE3A)

GESC 093. Special Topics. 4 Units.

Special Topics.

GESC 100. Mineralogy. 5 Units.

Minerals are studied through crystallography, crystal chemistry and crystal structure. This course focuses on the major groups of rock-forming minerals, their associations and origin and on mineral identification by physical properties, optical techniques, and x-ray methods. Prerequisites: CHEM 023 or CHEM 024 or CHEM 025 or CHEM 027; GESC 051 or GESC 053 or GESC 061 or GESC 065.

GESC 102. Earth Surface Processes and GIS. 4 Units.

This course examines the physical processes that shape the Earth’s surface, including the qualitative description of landforms and the analytical and quantitative understanding of processes. The course emphasizes techniques for characterizing landforms, soils, and the processes that shape them, including spatial analysis, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), air photo interpretation, experimental simulation, and field methods. (ENST)

GESC 103. Global Change. 4 Units.

This lecture and laboratory interdisciplinary study of the Earth’s dramatic and abrupt changes in the past and their tremendous environmental repercussions has an emphasis on human interactions and future changes. Prerequisites: an introductory GESC course; CHEM 023 or CHEM 024 or CHEM 025 or CHEM 027. (ENST)

GESC 105. Field Studies. 1 or 2 Unit.

This field study of geological phenomena in western North America involves a minimum of three continuous days on a department-supervised field trip. Students can repeat this course for up to 4 units of credit. Prerequisite: an introductory GESC course and permission of instructor.

GESC 106. Earth Materials. 5 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field work course studies the origin occurrence, and identification of rock-forming minerals and the rocks they are found in. The focus is on crystallography and chemical and physical properties of rock-forming minerals and the major rock-forming processes. Prerequisites: an introductory GESC course (GESC 051 or GESC 053 or GESC 061) and a college level course in chemistry (CHEM 023 or CHEM 024 or CHEM 025 or CHEM 027) or instructor permission. (ENST)

GESC 110. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. 4 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field work course characteristics, occurrence, origin and classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks with an emphasis on plate tectonic setting and the physical and chemical processes of the earth’s interior. Methods include field study, hand specimen and thin section analysis. Prerequisite: GESC 100 or permission of instructor.

GESC 112. Sedimentary Petrology. 4 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field work course studies characteristics, occurrence, origins and 3-D relationships of sedimentary rocks, and the mineral resources they contain. The course focuses on the materials and processes of sedimentation, depositional environments, and the principles of stratigraphical analysis. Prerequisite, may be taken concurrently: GESC 106.

GESC 114. Structural Geology. 4 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and required multi-day field trip course examines the character and causes of the geologic structures that deform Earth’s crust within the context of whole-Earth structure, geotectonic processes and environments, and rock mechanics. Prerequisite: GESC 051 or permission of instructor. (ENST)

GESC 120. Paleontology. 4 Units.

This lecture and laboratory course examines the study of the description, identification, uses, principles, interpretation and methods of study of major groups of fossils; invertebrate and vertebrate animals, plants and single-celled organisms. Prerequisite: GESC 053 or permission of instructor.

GESC 132. Foundations of Water Resources Law. 3 Units.

This unique, multi-disciplinary course will introduce you to a host of topics from other disciplines that any water resources professional should be familiar with. This course provides an introduction to the natural water cycle and human efforts to divert, extract, store, transport and govern water. Topics include: hydrology and hydrogeology; water systems modeling; environmental uses of water; governance and operation of water systems; the funding, design, construction, operation and maintenance of water diversion, pumping, storage, delivery and treatment systems; water chemistry and water re-use. This course is cross-listed in the law school, and students will participate in person in Sacramento or via videoconference from the Stockton campus. Several relatively local field trips will be required. Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. (ENST)

GESC 136. Petrography. 4 Units.

This lecture and laboratory course examines identification, classification, and interpretation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks using the petrographic microscope. Prerequisites: GESC 110 and GESC 112.

GESC 137. Environmental Law. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to the field of environmental law and provides a strong background on the American legal system, including the role of the courts, the federal and state governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Students will survey most of our major federal environmental laws, including the Endangered Species Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Clean Air Act. Coursework will include guided case readings and in-class discussion of major environmental law cases. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

GESC 142. Geochemistry. 4 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field work course examines the application of chemical principles to the study of geological processes. Prerequisites: an introductory GESC course; CHEM 024 or CHEM 025 or CHEM 027; MATH 041. (ENST)

GESC 144. Geomorphology. 4 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field work course studies the comprehensive treatment of the principles of landscape development, analysis of topographic maps and interpretation of aerial photographs. Prerequisite: an introductory GESC course. (ENST)

GESC 145. Engineering Geology. 4 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field work course introduces the study of applied geology in which geologic principles, data and techniques are applied to civil engineering problems. Prerequisites: GEOS 051 or GEOS 061 or CIVL 140. (ENST)

GESC 148. Critical Zone Science. 4 Units.

The Critical Zone is the Earth’s permeable near-surface layer…from the tops of the trees to the bottom of the groundwater. Despite the Critical Zone’s importance to terrestrial life, it remains poorly understood. In this class, we will strive to understand the complex web of physical, chemical, and biological processes of the Critical Zone using a systems approach across a broad array of sciences: hydrology, geology, soil science, biology, ecology, geochemistry, geomorphology, and more. Course includes laboratory and field work. Prerequisite: GESC 043 or GESC 053; GESC 051 or GESC 061; CHEM 024 with a grade of "C" or better. (ENST)

GESC 149. Environmental Hydrology. 4 Units.

An examination of the processes that govern the earth’s hydrologic cycle such as precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, runoff and streamflow processes, infiltration and groundwater processes, and an exploration of anthropogenic effects on the hydrologic cycle. Topics include land-atmosphere interactions, movement of water in subsurface environments, contaminant transport in groundwater systems, streamflow generation, surface water flow dynamics, sediment budgets, urban runoff and flood control. Course includes laboratory work. Prerequisites: GESC 043 or GESC 051 or GESC 053 or GESC 061 and MATH 051.

GESC 161. Geologic Field Methods. 4 Units.

This lecture and field study course introduces the basic methods and techniques of geologic field work, including measuring, describing, and interpreting stratigraphic sections and constructing geologic maps and cross sections. Particular emphasis is placed on the collection, analysis, and interpretation of geologic data; developing scientific writing and oral presentation skills; and the effective use of computer-generated graphics. The course involves one-day and multi-day field trips. Prerequisites: an introductory GESC course, GESC 110 and GESC 114 or permission of instructor.

GESC 162. Field Hydrology. 4 Units.

Understanding the water resources begins with the ability to measure and quantify them. This course introduces students to standard approaches for measuring the distribution and fluxes of water under real world conditions. Topics may include surveying, stream flow, evaporation, hydraulic conductivity, seepage, and chemistry in the context of the water cycle. Course includes field work. Prerequisite: GESC 149.

GESC 163. Environmental Field Methods. 3 Units.

Field methods of environmental science are introduced to students. Senior standing in the Environmental Science major or permission of instructor. (ENST)

GESC 178. Freshwater Ecology. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to the unique nature of freshwater, locations of freshwater, types of freshwater systems, ecosystems that occur in freshwater environments, and the range of human impacts to those ecosystems. We will cover streams, rivers, reservoirs, and associated riparian areas, as well as lakes and deltas. The last three weeks of the course will focus on pacific salmon as a detailed freshwater ecosystem case study and then cover the impacts of dams on river hydrology and ecosystems. The course will include two one-day field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 041 or BIOL 051, BIOL 061 and Sophomore standing.

GESC 185. Capstone Seminar in Geological and Environmental Sciences. 4 Units.

This seminar focuses on local/regional geological and environmental issues. Students investigate the background of local/regional geological/environmental issues and informed members of the community/region present their perspective on the issues. Students then work in teams to address scientific aspects of selected geological/environmental problems. Prerequisite: Senior standing in the major.

GESC 187. Internship in Geosciences. 2-4 Units.

GESC 191. Independent Study. 2-4 Units.

GESC 197. Undergraduate Research. 1-4 Units.

Environmental Studies Courses

BIOL 035. Environment: Concepts and Issues. 4 Units.

Principles of ecology as they bear on world environmental problems are introduced with an emphasis on biological aspects of world problems and on the interrelationships between culture and environment. Global dimension of population, resources, food, energy and environmental impact are considered. Course does not count toward a biology major. (ENST, GE3C)

BIOL 041. Introduction to Biology. 4 Units.

A lecture and laboratory introduce the concepts of biology. Physical structure, physiology, nutrition, reproduction, growth and behavior are examined from the perspective of adaptation and interaction with the environment. Human, animal and plant systems are covered. Recommended for non-majors. Course does not count toward a biology major. (ENST, GE3A)

BIOL 051. Principles of Biology. 5 Units.

A lecture and laboratory introduction to evolutionary biology and ecology. Preparation for continued studies in biological science. (ENST, GE3A)

BIOL 061. Principles of Biology. 5 Units.

This course is a lecture and laboratory introduction to cellular and molecular biology, cellular energetics, biochemistry, genetics and evolution. Preparation for continued studies in biological science. (ENST, GE3A)

BIOL 072. Vertebrate Biology. 4 Units.

Taxonomy, life history, ecology and evolutionary history of vertebrates are emphasized. Prerequisites: BIOL 051 and BIOL 061. (ENST)

BIOL 074. Biology of Insects. 4 Units.

A lecture and laboratory introduce a broad study of the structure and function of over 700,000 different species. It includes a study of their morphogenesis, reproduction, behavior and relation to humans. The laboratory work includes at least three field trips on Saturdays in addition to the preparation of 50-75 classified insects. Both anatomy and physiology of insects is covered in the two weekly laboratories. (ENST)

BIOL 076. Marine Biology. 4 Units.

General concepts of community ecology, taxonomy and phylogeny, anatomical and physiological adaptations of marine organisms, and their interaction with the physical environment are the main focus. The class emphasizes natural history and identification of marine organisms of the Central California intertidal and sub-tidal environment. Prerequisites: BIOL 051 and BIOL 061. (ENST, GE3A)

BIOL 077. Marine Birds and Mammals. 4 Units.

Ecology, behavior, economic importance and conservation of cetaceans, pinnipeds, otters, sirenians, seabirds and shorebirds are introduced. Physical and biological oceanography are considered as they relate to distribution and abundance of marine birds and mammals. This course is open to non-majors as well as majors. Junior standing. (ENST)

BIOL 079. California Flora. 4 Units.

Identification and classification of flowering plants, gymnosperms, ferns and fern allies as represented in Northern Calif. are studied. (ENST, GE3A)

BIOL 130. Plant Kingdom. 4 Units.

Through lectures, laboratories and field trips, students are introduced to the morphology, reproduction biology and environmental requirements of all major groups of plants. Included are material bearing on the evolutionary relationships within and between each major group. Individual projects are required. Prerequisites: BIOL 051 and BIOL 061. (ENST)

BIOL 151. Parasitology. 4 Units.

Principles of parasitism as well as biology of animal parasites with special emphasis on the protozoa, platyhelminths, nematodes, acanthocephala and arthropods are studied. Techniques of recovery of parasites from various vertebrate hosts are introduced including staining, mounting and identification. Prerequisites: BIOL 051, BIOL 061, BIOL 101. (ENST)

BIOL 175. Ecology. 5 Units.

The structure and dynamics of populations, biotic communities and ecosystems, is emphasized with particular focus upon relationships of organisms to their environments. Prerequisites: BIOL 051 and BIOL 061. (ENST)

BIOL 176. Ecology and Conservation Biology. 4 Units.

The principles of ecology are introduced with attention to consider threats and disruptions to ecological systems from the level of local populations through ecosystems, landscapes, and global processes. Ecological principles are used to help understand these systems, to make predictions for the future or for other systems, and to evaluate possible solutions. The class considers the importance of economic and demographic forces in causing conservation problems and in shaping conservation strategies, and students practice planning conservation areas. Prerequisite: BIOL 051. (ENST)

BIOL 197. Undergraduate Research. 1-4 Units.

CHEM 023. Elements of Chemistry. 4 Units.

This course is designed for general interest in physical science and for preparation for further study in chemistry. Three class periods, one three-hour laboratory period a week, and enrollment in the Chemistry Workshop are required. (ENST, GE3A)

CHEM 024. Fundamentals of Chem. 4 Units.

This course covers general chemistry especially tailored for engineers and earth scientists. Important principles, theories and concepts include: stoichiometry, atomic and molecular structure, equilibrium, gases, thermodynamics, kinetic, electrochemistry and nuclear chemistry. Three lecture periods and one three-hour lab are required. Prerequisites: High school algebra or the equivalent, one year of high school chemistry with a “B” or better, or appropriate score on the Pacific Diagnostic Chemistry test or CHEM 023. (ENST, GE3A)

CHEM 025. General Chemistry. 5 Units.

The important general principles, theories and concepts of chemistry are studied, including fundamentals of chemistry and equilibrium. Three class periods, two three-hour laboratory periods a week, and enrollment in the Chemistry Workshop are required. Prerequisite: high school algebra or the equivalent. High school chemistry is highly recommended. CHEM 023 with a "C-" or better, Chemistry Subject Test, or appropriate score on Pacific Diagnostic Chemistry test. (ENST, GE3A)

CHEM 027. General Chemistry. 5 Units.

More important general principles, theories, and concepts of chemistry are studied including modern applications of quantum mechanics, bonding, chemical kinetics, liquids, solids, and properties of solutions. Additional special topics include coordination compounds, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry and biochemistry. Three class periods, two three-hour laboratory periods a week, and enrollment in the Chemistry Workshop are required. Prerequisite: At least one year of high school chemistry is highly recommended. CHEM 025 with a "C-" or better, Chemistry Subject Test, or appropriate score on Pacific Diagnostic Chemistry test. (ENST, GE3A)

CHEM 141. Analytical Chemistry. 4 Units.

The roots of analytical chemistry and the principles used in modern instruments come from traditional techniques. These techniques include gravimetry, acid-base, complexometric, and redox titrations form the backbone of the course, which covers most major areas of modern quantitative analysis. The theory behind the techniques is covered through many numerical examples and their applications in environmental and biochemical analyses are emphasized. Standard procedures used in analytical laboratories are introduced, including error reporting, statistics, and quality assurance. Prerequisites: CHEM 025 and CHEM 027 or GEOS 142 with a "C-" or better. (ENST)

CHEM 197. Independent Research. 1-4 Units.

Prerequisite: CHEM 025 with a "C-" or better. (ENST)

CIVL 171. Water and Environmental Policy. 3 Units.

This course introduces students to Federal and State of California environmental regulations pertaining to air, water, hazardous wastes, and toxic substances. Topics include an overview of water rights and environmental impact assessment, relevant case studies, and examples of monitoring and enforcement issues. Prerequisite: Completion of all Fundamental Skills. Junior or Senior standing. (ENST)

ECON 071. Global Economic Issues. 4 Units.

This course is an introduction to international trade, international finance and economic development. Economic principles and tools are used to understand the interconnected global economy. Topics include trade theory and policy; regional and multilateral trading system; trade and climate change; balance of payments; foreign exchange markets and exchange rate determination; and the role of foreign aid private capital flows and trade policy in economic development. Prerequisites: ECON 053; ECON 051 or 055. ECON 071 cannot be taken for credit if the student has taken or is concurrently enrolled in ECON 121 or ECON 123. ECON 071 is also listed as an SIS course. (ENST)

ECON 157. Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. 4 Units.

The application of economic theory to natural resource and environmental issues is examined. Microeconomic principles are used to suggest what a proper balance between human activity and environmental quality might be and to analyze current environmental policy. Topics include renewable and non-renewable resources, common pool resources, climate change, non-market valuation, cost-benefit analysis, role of government and the private sector in environmental preservation. Prerequisite: ECON 053. (ENST)

ENGL 126. Literature and the Environment. 4 Units.

This course examines the intertwining of science, technology, nature, and culture as reflected in environmental literature. Its content and approach are interdisciplinary. The required reading include literary texts and writings from the natural and social sciences, which engage with the debates on the construction and destruction of "nature", sustainability, biodiversity, and bioengineering. The intersections of environmental imperialism, environmental justice, globalization and ecological crises are major components of the course inquiry. (DVSY, ENST, ETHC, GE3C, GEND)

ENST 041. Introduction to Environmental Studies. 4 Units.

This course provides an introduction to the interdisciplinary field of Environmental Studies. Students will examine how perspectives of the natural sciences, the humanities, and social sciences (such as economics and political science) can be used in order to better understand how people relate to and interact with our environment. The course will focus on contemporary environmental challenges in California’s Central Valley, centered on the themes of water and food. More broadly, the course will consider core environmental studies questions like what we mean by “the environment” and how we understand mankind’s place within it. (ENST, GE3C)

ENST 099. Environmental Studies Professional Development Seminar. 1 Unit.

In this seminar, Environmental Studies majors develop and implement a plan for building out the tools, skills, and experience that will support them in successfully pursing their career goals. This seminar is required of all students enrolled as Environmental Studies majors in each fall when it is offered. (ENST)

ENST 100. Environmental Studies Issues and Solutions Seminar. 1 Unit.

This topical seminar is designed to give students exposure to important and emerging topics in Environmental Studies and the individuals and organizations that are working on them. In the course of the term, students will conduct background research on four topics and develop short, written reports analyzing the scientific, political, policy, and social dimensions of the issue. This course is required of all students enrolled as Environmental Studies majors in each Spring when it is offered and appropriate for students in Geological and Environmental Science, Biology, Chemistry, Communication, Economics, Business, Political Science, and International Studies. (ENST)

ENST 185. Capstone Seminar in Environmental Studies. 4 Units.

This seminar focuses on local/regional environmental issues. Students investigate the background of local/regional environmental issues and informed members of the community/region present their perspective on the issues. Students then work in teams to address scientific aspects of selected environmental problems. Prerequisite: Senior standing in Environmental Studies. (ENST)

ENST 187. Internship in Enviromental Studies. 1-4 Units.

ENST 187A. Internship in Environmental Studies. 1-4 Units.

GEOS 102. Earth Surface Processes and GIS. 4 Units.

This course examines the physical processes that shape the Earth’s surface, including the qualitative description of landforms and the analytical and quantitative understanding of processes. The course emphasizes techniques for characterizing landforms, soils, and the processes that shape them, including spatial analysis, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), air photo interpretation, experimental simulation, and field methods. (ENST)

GEOS 106. Earth Materials. 5 Units.

This lecture, laboratory, and field work course studies the origin occurrence, and identification of rock-forming minerals and the rocks they are found in. The focus is on crystallography and chemical and physical properties of rock-forming minerals and the major rock-forming processes. Prerequisites: an introductory GEOS course (GEOS 051 or GEOS 053 or GEOS 061) and a college level course in chemistry (CHEM 023 or CHEM 024 or CHEM 025 or CHEM 027) or instructor permission. (ENST)

HIST 052. John Muir's World: Origins of the Conservation Movement. 4 Units.

John Muir (1838-1914) is considered by most the "father" of the modern Conversation Movement. This course traces his life, his conversation crusades, and his global legacy. Home of the John Muir Papers, University of the Pacific's Library is used by all students in the course for research on an aspect of John Muir's contributions to conservation. Field trips to the John Muir National Historic Site in Martinez and to Yosemite National Park are often a part of this course. (ENST, GE2B)

HIST 136. American Environmental History. 4 Units.

This course is a topical survey of historical roots of environmental crises in contemporary North America beginning with Western concepts of natural history. The course mainly focuses on three centuries of changing American attitudes and policies and activities that led to the rise of the Conservation Movement by the late nineteenth century, With includes tensions between users and preservers, and the development of an ecological school of environmentalism beginning in the 1940's. (ENST)

INTL 174. Global Environmental Policy. 4 Units.

Students examine the major environmental problems that confront the world today and an analysis of specific policies formulated to address those problems. Among the issues to be studied are deforestation, atmospheric and marine pollution, climate change, ozone depletion, and species loss. Prerequisite: POLS 051. (ENST)

MATH 035. Elementary Statistical Inference. 4 Units.

Emphasis is on the applications and limitations of statistical methods of inference, especially in the social and behavioral sciences. Topics include: estimation and test of hypothesis concerning a signel group, One-way Analysis of Variance and analysis of categorical data. The use of statistical computer programs is addressed. Credit is not given for this course if a student has received credit for MATH 037 or has AP credit in Statistics. Prerequisite: MATH 003 or MATH 005 or MATH 041 with a "C-" or better, or an appropriate score on either the Elementary Algebra placement test, the Intermediate Algebra Placement test, or the Pre-calculus placement test or permission of instructor. (ENST, GE3B, MATH, PLAW)

MATH 037. Introduction to Statistics and Probability. 4 Units.

Students study elements of descriptive statistics: graphs, tables, measures of central tendency and dispersion. Probability models including binomial and normal are covered. The course introduces to estimation, hypothesis testing and analysis of variance in addition to linear and multiple regression and correlation. The use of statistical computer programs is addressed. The course is not recommended for first semester freshmen. Credit is not given for this course if a student has received credit for MATH 035 or has AP credit in Statistics. Prerequisites: MATH 033 or MATH 041 or MATH 045 or MATH 051 or MATH 053 with a "C-" or better or appropriate score on the calculus placement test. (ENST, GE3B, MATH, PLAW)

MUIR 187. Internship. 1-4 Units.

Supervised experiential learning opportunity (ELO) in (a) library/museum research and operations on a subject connected with John Muir's life or legacy; (b) field work or office setting within an environmental organization; federal, state, or local environmental agency; or educational work through an environmental institute or institution, to be contracted on an individual basis. Prerequisites: sophomore standing and permission of the supervisor. (ENST)

PHIL 035. Environmental Ethics. 4 Units.

Students investige into various environmental problems and the ethical attitudes and principles required to address them. Questions might include: Do animals have rights? Do plants, or whole ecosystems, or future generations of people, have interests, and if so, are we obligated to respect these interests? Are humans part of nature, and is that which is natural always good? Are you required to perform environmentally-friendly acts even in cases where doing so involves some cost to you and you lack assurance that enough others will join you to make a collective difference? Can we put a "price" on environmental goods like clean water, a species' existence, a beautiful vista, and even a human life---as economists frequently try to do? (ENST, GE2B)

POLS 119. Government in Action: Public Policy Analysis. 4 Units.

This course is an analysis and evaluation of how government makes and implements policy at various levels, both state and local. This is a core major requirement that develops political science learning objectives that are the bases for advanced coursework in the major. Prerequisite: POLS 041. (ENST, PLAW)

SOCI 111. Environment and Society. 4 Units.

Students examine the relationship between society and the natural world. It comparatively analyzes theories concerning how humans relate to the natural world as well as the causes of environmental degradation. It attends to the various roles of the biological and social sciences in understanding environmental issues, as well as the relationship between environment and inequality. The course analyzes how various social systems, institutions and behaviors contribute to environmental degradation, and highlights and compares political solutions. (DVSY, ENST, ETHC, GE3C)

Content Mastery

  1. Describe the fundamental Earth systems and cycles including how they integrate sub-disciplines and cross traditional discipline boundaries and explain how they truly benefit society. 
  2. Describe and identify common Earth materials and interpret their composition, origin and uses. 
  3. Describe the processes operating at and beneath the Earth's surface, how those processes create the Earth's landscape, and how humans affect and are affected by the processes. 
  4. Outline the broad physical and biological history of the planet and the evidence for that history and how the past can be used to anticipate future changes.

Skills

  1. Present geological information clearly in written, graphic and oral form. 
  2. Interpret and quantify geological phenomena in the lab and in the field applying the scientific method using appropriate skills. 
  3. Initiate and conduct research including hypothesis formation, literature research, and date collection and interpretation and present the results to a broader audience.

Values

  1. Aware of the value of high ethical standards in one's professional conduct and stewardship of the Earth and its resources. 
  2. Aware of the value of collaborative work, an appreciation for the contributions of others, and confidence in their ability to make valuable contributions. 
  3. Value how earth science knowledge and skills can be used to address the grand challenges facing human society, including climate change, mass extinction, water resources, etc.

Geological and Environmental Sciences Faculty

Laura Rademacher, Associate Professor and Chair, 2005, BS, University of Wisconsin, Madison; PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2002.

Kurtis Burmeister, Associate Professor, 2005, BA, University of California at Santa Barbara, 1996; MA, 2000; PhD, University of Illinois, 2005.

Lydia Fox, Associate Professor, 1990, BSE, Princeton University, 1981; PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1989.

Eugene Pearson, Professor, 1971, BA, Pomona College, 1967; PhD, University of Wyoming, 1972.