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Ethnic Studies Program

http://www.pacific.edu/Academics/Schools-and-Colleges/College-of-the-Pacific/Academics/Departments-and-Programs/Ethnic-Studies.html
Phone: (209) 946-2245; (209) 946-2611
Location: WPC 212 Social Science Hub; WPC 127

Zhou Xiaojing, Director

Minors Offered

Ethnic Studies

Ethnic Studies is an interdisciplinary minor, incorporating courses offered in various schools and departments. It provides students with multiple models of critical theories and methodologies for examining the intersections of race, ethnicity, gender, culture, and class in the historical formations of the United States, with an emphasis on the experiences and perspectives of historically disenfranchised populations such as African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans.

Ethnic Studies broadens students’ major fields of study, prepares students for interdisciplinary inquiries at the graduate level, and enhances students’ employment opportunities in law, education, business, medicine, government, communication, and social services, among other professions.

Mission Statement

The Ethnic Studies Program at the University of the Pacific is dedicated to interdisciplinary learning which equips students with the conceptual and practical skills necessary for participating competently and responsibly in all aspects of civic life, which contribute to advancing social equity, inclusive democracy, and global citizenship.

Objectives

The Ethnic Studies Program’s Goals and Objectives consist of the following:

  1. to provide an opportunity for all students to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between social structure and the experience of racial and ethnic difference;
  2. to examine the problems of racial and ethnic inequality as a means of promoting the pursuit of social justice and equity;
  3. to investigate the intricate relationships among race, class, gender, and culture historically and in contemporary society;
  4. to facilitate the incorporation of scholarship on underrepresented racial and ethnic groups into the university curricula;
  5. to equip students with historical frameworks and theoretical tools that will enable them to engage more productively in their respective areas of study, and to better prepare them for their leadership roles in a democratic society; and
  6. to foster ties among all students of various racial and ethnic backgrounds, and between students and local communities.

Minor in Ethnic Studies

Students must complete a minimum of 20 units and 5 courses with a grade point average of at least 2.0 in order to earn the minor in ethnic studies.

Minor Requirements:

ETHN 011Introduction to Ethnic Studies4
Electives (Four additional courses from Ethnic Studies course offerings)16

Note: 1) See the list at the end of ETHN course offerings. 2) At least two of these courses must be 100 or above. 3) These 5 courses have to be taken in more than one discipline.

Students are not required to take a capstone course to complete the minor. 

Optional4
Service Learning Practicum
Undergraduate Research

Note: 1) Student must have a 2.5 GPA in order to take ETHN 197. 2) ETHN 011 is a prerequisite for the above capstone courses.

Ethnic Studies Courses

ETHN 011. Introduction to Ethnic Studies. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to the theories and practices of Ethnic Studies, with a focus on the racial formation in the United States, and its impact on the experiences and social statuses of racialized groups, including, but not limited to, Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, Asians, /Pacific Islanders, and Whites. The primary course contents include histories, critical race theories, media representations and critical studies. While California serves as the major geographical location of racial formation in this study, the issues the class explores are situated in national and global contexts. Through a critical examination of histories and contemporary issues regarding the social positions of racialized groups in the U.S., the course seeks an understanding of “the irreducibility of race in U.S. political and cultural life” (Winant 33). (At the same time, the forces and conditions for social change and cultural transformation are examined. The contributions of historically marginalized “minority” Americans to the development of American democracy is a major discussion and research topic. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B)

ETHN 189. Service Learning Practicum. 2-4 Units.

As one of the capstone courses, the Service Learning Practicum offers students an opportunity to integrate and apply the skills, knowledge, and theories that they have learned to community-based service learning projects related to their academic interests. Each student works with a faculty supervisor, who provides guidance for the student's experiential learning. While a capstone course is strongly recommended, it is optional. Students can take an alternative course for completing a minor in Ethnic Studies. Prerequisite: Completion of ETHN 011 and another course in Ethnic Studies. (ETHC)

ETHN 191. Independent Study. 2-4 Units.

This course is an undergraduate independent study. A student who takes this course works with a faculty member approved by the Director of Ethnic Studies.

ETHN 193. Special Topics. 2-4 Units.

ETHN 197. Undergraduate Research. 2-4 Units.

This is one of the two capstone courses. It offers students an opportunity to integrate and apply the skills, knowledge, and theories they have learned to a particular research project in a field of their academic interest. Each student works with a faculty supervisor who has expertise in the student's research topic. While this course is strongly recommended, it is optional. Students do not need to take this course for completing a minor in Ethnic Studies. Prerequisite: Overall GPA 2.5 or above, completion of ETHN 011 and another course in Ethnic Studies.

Other Ethnic Studies Courses

ANTH 053. Cultural Anthropology. 4 Units.

This introductory course covers the anthropological view of humanity, the character and nature of culture, and the diversity of the human species. The major concepts, methods, and theoretical assumptions of the discipline are illustrated by applying anthropological perspectives to peoples from around the world. Topics include culture, ethnicity, and language; kinship, marriage, and social organization; time and space; religion, magic and rituals; gender and sexuality; power, inequality, and political relations; economic production, circulation, and consumption; social control; and the various forces and forms of change. General Education IC. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1C)

ANTH 054. Antropología Cultural. 4 Units.

Cultural Anthropology (ANTH 053) is taught in Spanish. See course description above. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1C)

ANTH 112. Physical Anthropology. 4 Units.

Students examine human origins and an evaluation of humanity’s place in the natural world. This course examines processes and principles of human evolution from an anthropological perspective which emphasize the interaction between biology and culture. Major topics include reproduction and genetics, human variation, primate studies, and the fossil record. After reviewing the basic tenets of the “anthropological perspective” and evolutionary science, the course examines micro and macro level processes of evolution, that focus on the origins and dispersal of our own species, Homo sapiens. Finally, the course evaluates the current state of human biocultural evolution, the significance of human diversity, and the role of humans in ongoing planetary processes of change and interaction. General Education IIIC. (ENST, ETHC, GE3C)

BUSI 165. International Marketing. 4 Units.

Students examine the environment for marketing across borders. The course covers marketing practice, policies and strategies in the multinational setting. Students complete a global screening of countries and draw up a marketing plan and strategy for a given product. Prerequisite: BUSI 107 with a "C" or better. Junior standing. (ETHC)

COMM 133. Documentary Film as Persuasive Communication. 4 Units.

This course is a survey of documentary film beginning at the turn of the century and continuing through contemporary productions from a historical and rhetorical perspective. Students explore documentary film's origins and trace out its development in relation to its use and reception as students become familiar with the history of the documentary, the evolution of the genre, its rhetorical construction and its cultural influences. (DVSY, ETHC, FILM)

COMM 143. Intercultural Communication. 4 Units.

This course analyzes the major variables affecting interpersonal communication between persons of different cultural backgrounds. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1C)

ECON 180. Labor Economics. 4 Units.

This course examines labor's role in the market system and the response of labor and government to market failures. Microeconomic analysis of labor supply and demand, wage and employment determination, and the effects of discrimination are also studied as well as the development of the labor movement from a chronological and theoretical perspective with emphasis on the collective bargaining process. The influence of public policy on labor relations and labor market functioning is also discussed. This course is also listed as a Gender Studies course. Prerequisite: ECON 053. (ETHC)

EDUC 129. Seminar: Cultural Basis of Conflict in Education. 3 Units.

Analysis of cultural diversity in American classrooms. Not open to doctoral students. (ETHC)

EDUC 163. Teaching English Learners. 4 Units.

This course is designed to equip mainstream classroom teachers with the theory, principles, knowledge, and skills to effectively understand and teach English Language Learners at a variety of levels of English profeciency in K-8 classrooms. Teachers will develop appropriate strategies and approaches for developing language proficiency and link their practice to both the California english Language Development Standards and the new Common Core State Standards. Students observe and implement these strategies during their field experiences in order to see, practice, and reflect on effective ways to meet the needs of English learners. Objectives include appropriate assessment, planning, and implementation of sheltered content instruction. Fieldwork hours (160 series fieldwork) specific to this class are required. A grade of C or higher is required for passing this course. Prerequiesites: EDUC 100, 140, and 150, or instructor/C & I department permission; minimum GPA of 2.5; Finerprint and TB test clearance. (ETHC)

EDUC 164. Introduction to Bilingual Education. 4 Units.

This course provides an overview of bilingual education and is designed to meet the needs of both undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in understanding the role of bilingual, bicultural education in schools. Students explore the related implications of second language acquisition research, sociopolitical theory, and historical as well as contemporary experiences in the contexts of program design, instructional practice, and school/community relations toward a conceptualization of bilingual education as a source of pedagogical enrichment strategies for all learners in all settings. Prerequisites: EDUC 100 and EDUC 131. (ETHC)

EDUC 166. Teaching English Learners, Single Subject. 3 Units.

This course is designed to equip mainstream classroom teachers with the theory, principles, knowledge, and skills to effectively understand and teach English Language Learners at a variety of levels of English proficiency in K-12 classrooms. Teahcers develop appropriate strategies and approaches for developing language proficiency and link their practice to the California English language Development Standards and the new Common Core State Standards. Students observe and implement these stategies during their field experiences in order to see, practice, and reflect on effective ways to meet the needs of English learners. Objective include appropriate assessment, planning, and implementation of sheltered content instruction. Fieldwork hours (160 series feldwork) specific to this class are required. A grade of C or higher is required for passing this course. Prerequisites: EDUC 140 or instructor/C & I department permission; minimium 2.5 GPA; Fingerprint and TB test clearance. (ETHC)

EDUC 181. ECE: Social Justice/Diversity. 3 Units.

This course is conducted as an undergraduate level seminar that is designed to examine key normative issues in the area of social justice, diversity and multiculturalism with an emphasis in early childhood education. The relation of social diversity (race, ethnicity, gender, language, societal attitudes and class) to equality in education and education reform movements is viewed from multiple contexts. Topics explored are diversity, sociopolitical aspects of history and the impact on education, and specifically, early childhood education and multiculturalism. A practicum is required in this course. (ETHC)

EDUC 204. Pluralism in American Education. 3 Units.

This course is a multi-disciplinary examination of the effects of cultural and social pluralism on educational policy, philosophy, classroom instruction and professional ethics in American public education, both historically and as contemporary issues. (ETHC)

EDUC 264. Introduction to Bilingual Education. 4 Units.

This course provides an overview of bilingual education and is designed to meet the needs of both undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in understanding the role of bilingual, bicultural education in schools. Students explore the related implications of second language acquisition research, sociopolitical theory, and historical as well as contemporary experiences in the contexts of program design, instructional practice, and school/community relations toward a conceptualization of bilingual education as a source of pedagogical enrichment strategies for all learners in all settings. (ETHC)

ENGL 126. Environment and Literature. 4 Units.

This course examines the intertwining of science, technology, nature, and culture as reflected in environmental literature. Its content and approach are interdisciplinary. The required reading include literary texts and writings from the natural and social sciences, which engage with the debates on the construction and destruction of "nature", sustainability, biodiversity, and bioengineering. The intersections of environmental imperialism, environmental justice, globalization and ecological crises are major components of the course inquiry. (DVSY, ENST, ETHC, GE3C, GEND)

ENGL 160. Blues, Jazz, and Literature. 4 Units.

Students in this interdisciplinary seminar explore how thematic and formal aspects of work songs, spirituals, blues, and jazz have shaped and been shaped by 19th and 20th century (African) American literature and culture. Students will examine the assigned blues, jazz, fiction, novels, and poetry as explorations of the history of racial and class conflict in America; as mediations on individual and collective loss and longing; and as means of aesthetic transcendence. Students will conduct independent research. Prerequisite: Sophomore Standing. (ETHC, GE1B)

ENGL 161. Topics in American Ethnic Literature. 4 Units.

Studies of contributors to American Literature within the context of their shared ethnicity are the focus of this course. Topics change and possible offerings include American Immigrant Literature, African-American Poetry, Black Women Writers, Blues, Jazz and Literature, and Chicano/a Literature. This course may be repeated once for credit with a different focus. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B, GEND)

ENGL 162. Asian American Literature. 4 Units.

If “postmodernism” signals “the end of master narratives” and “the end of nature,” as critics claim, then postmodernism can be understood in terms of epistemological challenges to the production of knowledge. Such challenges have opened up new possibilities for creativity, narrative, and critical inquiry. This course introduces students to major texts by Asian American writers, whose reinventions of literacy genres revitalize the power of literature, as they seek to engage with the legacies of colonialism and their connections to economic globalization, environmental degradation, and resistance from the Global South. (ETHC, GE1B, GEND)

HESP 141. Sport, Culture and U.S. Society. 4 Units.

This course is designed to explore the relationship between sport, culture and society in both the USA and the broader global world. Students learn to critically examine a wide range of topics that include, but not limited to, sport and gender, sport and race, global sports worlds, drugs and violence in sport, sport and politics and the crime-sport nexus. The intention of this course is to develop the student’s sociological imagination and encourage the student to think critically about the role sport plays in the development of societies, ideologies and everyday life. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B, GEND)

HIST 120. Native American History. 4 Units.

Taking an international interdisciplinary approach, this course examines the history of native peoples of different regions of North America from contact to the present. This course looks at how environmental change, disease, and biological vulnerability interacted with racial ideologies, economic, and social factors to facilitate European conquest. While this course is primarily concerned with the United States, considering the whole of North America enables students to see the similarities and differences between Indian experiences in a variety of regions. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B)

HIST 124. History of the American West. 4 Units.

This course studies the causes and consequences of America's westward expansion and along with the beginnings of Spanish and French settlements to modern times, with emphasis on the people, the myths, and the technologies that have shaped western development and culture. (ETHC)

HIST 125. Early America: From Settlement to New Nation. 4 Units.

This class focuses on the period from the arrival of Europeans and Africans in British North America at the beginning of the seventeenth century through the establishment of the new United States. In a combination of lecture and seminar format, we explore the social, political, cultural, and environmental changes that occurred as the new arrivals and native peoples learned about each other. They created a new world and ultimately, formed a new nation born in blood and fire. But exactly what kind of nation that would be was something that still needed to be resolved. (ETHC)

HIST 130. History of California. 4 Units.

This course is a survey of the Golden State from its first description as a mythical island in the sixteenth century to the state's economic and political prominence in our own times. Native American beginnings, Spanish Mission Period, Mexican California, the Gold Rush and its consequences, and Modern California from World War II to the present are emphasized. Class participants select famous "California History Makers" and present their own research with presentations on notable figures in the State's unique history from Spanish friars and explorers to politicians, inventors, scientists, Hollywood's most influential, and others in California's Hall of Fame. This class is especially recommended for future educators, but it is open to all. (ETHC)

HIST 132. American Immigration. 4 Units.

This course focuses on immigration in the 19th and 20th centuries exploring the experiences of the diverse immigrant communities in the United States. It also explores causes of immigration; experiences within the U.S.; effects of class, race and gender; and issues of identity. America's changing understandings of race and ethnicity over time are also central themes covered. Immigration and ethnicity are pressing social concerns in contemporary America. Congress debates "reform" bills while ordinary Americans protest current policy. While immigration policy issues impress us with their urgency, they are by no means new. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1C)

HIST 134. African-American History. 4 Units.

The course examines the social, economic, cultural, and political history of African-Americans and the development of concepts of race and racism. The course begins with the origins of slavery in colonial times, then on to the Civil War and Reconstruction, the Great Migration to the North and West, World War II and the civil rights era and continues to the present day. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B)

HIST 137. His-panic" USA. 4 Units.

When writer Oscar Hijuelos first set eyes on the word "Hispanic" he read it as "His-Panic," believing that this group of people caused alarm to Anglo society. Why do Hispanics cause so much panic? Hispanics have replaced African Americans as the largest minority group in the United States. Major news sources have written about the US government's preoccupation and concern with what "Hispanics"/Latinos do, eat, say, wear, and watch. Yet, and perhaps what is at the root of the "panic", the "largest minority" continues to be seen as "foreign." As a group, Hispanics represent all racial groups, while at the same time, they continue to identify with their country of origin rather than with a particular racial group, making it difficult to fit them into the United States' system of racial categorization. (ETHC)

HIST 139. Borderlands. 4 Units.

This course takes a unique approach by combining historical inquiry with analysis of contemporary issues in teaching this course. The relationship between Mexico and the United States has been one of conflict and codependency, constantly changing with the shifts in domestic politics and economics on each side of the border. The Mexican and U.S. communities located on or near the border frequently feel the strongest and most immediate impact of this (dis)union. The borderlands are the areas of intersections between cultures, nations, histories. The borderlands, straddling the periphery of two nations, are fundamentally different from either country. Moreover, the border and its culture have many implications that reach far beyond that region, affecting the lives of migrants, laborers, and, on a larger scale, governments and the environment. (ETHC)

HIST 167. Gender in the History of Science/Medicine/Technology. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to the literature on gender in the history of science, technology, and medicine. Students learn how to use gender to analyze scientific practice and examine how it intersects with other historical categories such as race, ethnicity, sexuality, class, and nationality. The course explores five interrelated topics: (1) The historical participation of women and men in scientific work, (2) the scientific and historical construction of sex and sexuality, (3) the influence of ideologies of gender on the methodology of science, medicine, and engineering, (4) the gendering of technologies and artifacts, (5) the relation between ideas of gender, science, and politics. Based on their increased historical understanding, students reflect upon their own gendered experiences and expectations in encountering science as students, as laboratory workers, patients, and consumers. This course is open to both science and non-science majors. (DVSY, ETHC, GE3C, GEND)

MUJZ 008. Introduction to Jazz. 3 Units.

This is an introduction to jazz studies and performers through intelligent listening and historical research. This course teaches jazz as an art form created by African-Americans and it investigates issues concerning race, ethnicity, and social justice. Topics include connections to slavery, Civil and World Wars, segregation, and the musical response of African-Americans. Students write a live performance critique, album reviews, artist papers, and a research paper. No previous study of music is required. (ETHC, GE2C)

POLS 104. Urban Government. 4 Units.

Students examine the structure and operation of urban units of government with emphasis on inter-governmental and inter-group relations in the United States. Problems of finance, racial, ethnic and class conflict, the adequacy of services and planning for future growth are included. The course emphasizes the role of race, class, and ethnicity in the city and is approved by Ethnic Studies. (DVSY, ETHC)

POLS 134. American Political Thought. 4 Units.

Principles and problems of political theory within the American setting are examined as they emerge from the founding period to the present. The course explores both the mainstream tradition and branches of counter traditions of political ideas in America. Emphasis is on the themes of authority, community, equality, liberty. (DVSY, ETHC, GE2B)

PSYC 017. Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. 4 Units.

This course covers the history of mental health and mental health diagnoses; past and current research findings, and prevailing thoughts and current controversies in the field of mental health and treatments. Recommended for freshman and sophomores. (DVSY, ETHC)

PSYC 129. Advanced Lab in Developmental Psychology. 4 Units.

This course provides a survey of methods, theories, and findings most relevant to the contemporary study of human development. Major emphasis is placed on current directions in developmental research. Course content focuses on either an age period (e.g., early childhood, adolescence) or a topical area (e.g., emotional development, social relationships) to illustrate contemporary research questions about development and the methods used to address them. Observations may be required as part of a research project. Prerequisites: PSYC 029, PSYC 102 with a C- or better. (DVSY, ETHC)

RELI 143. Religion, Race, Justice in US. 4 Units.

Throughout American history, religion has played a pivotal role in discussions of race, both in justifications for slavery and racial discrimination and in movements for social justice. In the 19th century, white supremacists argued that a passage in Genesis about Noah and his sons preordained the enslavement of Black people. During the Civil Rights movement, the Black church played a central role and Martin Luther King quoted extensively from the Bible in speeches such as his “I Have a Dream speech.” Other Black civil rights advocates argued that the connection between racism and Christianity ran so deep that true liberation could not be found in the Christian church. This course will examine the intersection of religion and race. We will look at race and ethnicity in the Bible and early biblical interpretation and then turn to the American experience. The course will address multiple religious traditions, although it will concentrate primarily on Christianity. We will look at both history and pressing contemporary issues. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B)

SLPA 143. Multicultural Populations. 3 Units.

Students examine theoretical models of normal second language acquisition and bilingualism that emphasize the relationship to accurate identification of communication disorders. The content distinguishes between language differences due to differing cultural linguistic variables and underlying, cross-lingual language impairment. Current research and trends in diagnosis and re-mediation techniques for multicultural clients is studied as well as. Problem-solving approaches for specific clinical cases. (DVSY, ETHC)

SOCI 041. Social Problems. 4 Units.

This course is an exploration of the process by which various social conditions become labeled as social problems worthy of policy responses. It examines the various roles played by the media, government actors, activists and everyday citizens in this process, and pays particular attention to the role of power in enabling some social groups to label the behaviors of others an problematic while deflecting attention from their own practices. This course focuses predominantly on the US, but also engages in comparative analysis with other countries. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B, GEND)

SOCI 061. Urban Society. 4 Units.

What effects has the historical emergence of cities had on human social interaction and public life? How do urban places structure social relations and create identities and cultural meanings? This course explores the development of the city and its effects on social life. Particular attention is given to issues of poverty, interracial interaction and segregation, suburbanization, gentrification, urban development and urban cultural movements. Though this course takes US metropolitan areas as its primary focus, it also draws on global examples. (ETHC)

SOCI 108. Food, Culture and Society. 4 Units.

Are you what you eat, or do you eat what you are? This course focuses on the role of food in society, with an emphasis on understanding food in its social and cultural contexts. Topics include food and nutrition; problems of over- and under-eating; food fads; food sacrifices and taboos; food and social and ethnic identity; and the global politics of food. Although beginning with a look at American food ways, the course is highly cross-cultural and comparative in nature. (DVSY, ENST, ETHC, GE1C)

SOCI 111. Environment and Society. 4 Units.

Students examine the relationship between society and the natural world. It comparatively analyzes theories concerning how humans relate to the natural world as well as the causes of environmental degradation. It attends to the various roles of the biological and social sciences in understanding environmental issues, as well as the relationship between environment and inequality. The course analyzes how various social systems, institutions and behaviors contribute to environmental degradation, and highlights and compares political solutions. (DVSY, ENST, ETHC, GE3C)

SOCI 123. Sex and Gender. 4 Units.

The course material explores how various social institutions in contemporary society shape our understanding of gender, sex and sexuality. Although grounded in sociological analysis, the class is interdisciplinary and intersectional in nature as many of the course texts are drawn from a range of social science disciplines. The lectures, assigned reading, and activities address how sex and gender are intricately linked to other social statuses such as race, class and age. Prerequisite: a course in sociology or permission of instructor. (DVSY, ETHC, GEND)

SOCI 125. Sociology of Health and Illness. 4 Units.

This course introduces students to the sociology of medicine and the delivery of health care, with an emphasis on the interaction of patients, health care professionals, and social institutions. Topics of examination include health care settings, provider-patient relationships, ethical issues in health care, and trends in medicine and policies. Additionally, the course explores how race, class, and gender affect people’s health and illness in addition to how health policies shape the medical system, and how definitions, attitudes, and beliefs affect health and illness. (DVSY, ETHC, GE1B, GEND)

SOCI 127. Family and Marriage. 4 Units.

This course explores the social dynamics of human intimacy within families. Family life is examined through a historical, cultural and political lens to place the social institution in a broad societal context. The evolution of the family is studied both historically and comparatively. Special attention is given to the sociological significant of sexuality, changing roles of men and women, intimacy, marriage and divorce, domestic violence, parenthood, childhood and aging, and alternative ways of living together. The course texts examine family life across race and ethnic groups, social class, religion and geographic location. Prerequisite: a course in sociology or permission of instructor. (ETHC, GEND)

SOCI 133. Criminology. 4 Units.

Students analyze the nature and distribution of crime, theories of crime causation and prevention as well as an examination of the operation of police and judicial agencies. (ETHC, GE1A, PLAW)

SOCI 141. Prejudice and Racism. 4 Units.

Historical and contemporary forms of prejudice and racism are the focus of this course. Social institutions such as the media, education, family and government are examined for their role in fostering – as well as challenging - prejudice and racism. Racism, defined by sociologists as structural and institutionalized forms of discrimination, with an emphasis on prejudice against African Americans, is central to the course. Some of the texts deals with the intersection of anti-Semitism, racism, sexism and classism, that allows students to consider how multiple forms of discrimination are intertwined. Although centered in Sociology, the course readings and films are interdisciplinary in nature. Prerequisite: a course in sociology or permission of instructor. (DVSY, ETHC)

SOCI 172. Social Inequality. 4 Units.

Are some more equal than others? This course examines the historical causes, current structure, and consequences of social inequality. The emphasis is on contemporary social, economic and political issues in the United States. This course focuses on various group experiences of inequality due to race, class, gender, sexual orientation, immigration status, nativity, etc. Various sociological perspectives and empirical research are applied to gain a better understanding on how social inequality is created, manifested, and maintained. Students investigate the effects of social inequality on society, and possible frameworks to reduce the level of social inequality. Prerequisite: SOCI 051 or permission of instructor. Recommended: SOCI 171. (DVSY, ETHC, GEND)

SPAN 124. Escritores hispanos en los Estados Unidos. 4 Units.

This course is a systematic survey of U.S. Latino literature. This course provides an overall view of Hispanic literature in the United States with emphasis on the literature of one or more of its major groups: Mexican-Americans, Cuban-Americans, or "Nuyoricans." This course may be repeated with permission of the instructor. Recommended: SPAN 101 or SPAN 103 with a "C-" or better. (DVSY, ETHC)