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Orthodontics (OR)

Department Chairperson

Robert L. Boyd
Professor of Orthodontics

Program Director

HeeSoo Oh
Professor of Orthodontics

Clinical Director

M. Gabrielle Thodas
Assistant Professor of Orthodontics

Director of the Pre-doctoral Program

Mohamed S. Fallah
Associate Professor of Orthodontics

Director of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory (CRIL)

Sheldon Baumrind
Professor of Orthodontics

Associate Director of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory (CRIL)

HeeSoo Oh
Professor of Orthodontics

Director of the Cleft Lip and Palate Prevention Program

Marie Milena Tolarova
Professor of Orthodontics


A

Maryse M. Aubert
Associate Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, University Paris V, Dentistry, 1976
University Paris VII, Embryology, 1976
University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 1980
MA, University of the Pacific, Education, 1994
MA, University of the Pacific, Psychology and Counseling, 1994
University of California, San Francisco, Certificate of Participation - Temporomandibular, 1996

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B

Sheldon Baumrind
Professor of Orthodontics
BS, New York University, Chemistry, 1943
DDS, New York University, College of Dentistry, Dentistry, 1947
U. Oregon Dental School, Certificate in Orthodontics, 1966
MS, Oregon Health Sciences University, Cell Biology, 1968

Roger P. Boero
Associate Professor of Orthodontics
Pomona College, 1960
DDS, College of Physicians Surgeons (UOP), Dentistry, 1964
University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 1975
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 1995

Robert L. Boyd
Professor of Orthodontics
Indiana University, Biology, 1966
DDS, Temple University, Dentistry, 1970
CERT, University of Pennsylvania, Periodontics, 1972
CERT, University of Pennsylvania, Orthodontics, 1974
Med, University of Florida, Dental Education, 1981

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F

Mohamed S. Fallah
Associate Professor of Orthodontics
BSD, University of London, UK, Dental Surgery, 1969
University of Pittsburgh, Certificate - Clinical Intership, 1974
MSD, University of Pittsburgh, Dental Science, 1976
University of Pittsburgh, Certificate - Orthodontics, 1976

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H

David C. Hatcher
Associate Professor of Orthodontics
BA, Central Washington State College (1969), Biology
Columbia Basin Comm. College, Pasco, Washington (1967), Biology
DDS, University of Washington, Seattle (1973), Dentistry
M.R.C.D., University of Toronto, Ontario Canada (1983), Oral Radiology
M.Sc., University of Toronto, Ontario Canada (1983), Oral Radiology
University of Vermont Medical Center (1976), General Practice Residency
University of Washington, Seattle (1965), Biology
University of Washington, Seattle (1968), Biology
Western Washington State College (1969), Biology

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K

Katherine Kieu
Instructor of Orthodontics
BS, University of California, Los Angeles, Biology, 2005
DDS, University of California, San Francisco, Dentistry, 2009
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 2012

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M

Kimberly A Mahood
Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of Louisville, Biology, 2000
DMD, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, Dentistry, 2004
University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2005
University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Advanced General Dentistry, 2007
MSD, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2010

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O

HeeSoo Oh
Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, Chonnam National University School of Dentistry, Korea, Dentistry, 1989
Chonnam National University Hospital, Korea, Pediatric Dentistry, 1992
MS, Chonnam National University, School of Dentistry, Korea, Pediatric Dentistry, 1992
PhD, Chonnam National University, School of Dentistry, Korea, Oral Biology, 1999
University of the Pacific, School of Dentistry, Graduate Residency Program - AEGD, 2001
MSD, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni, School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2005

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P

Joorok Park
Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BA, University of California, Berkeley, Molecular and Cell Biology, 2001
DMD, University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine, Dental Medicine, 2006
MSD, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Certificate, Orthodontics, 2008

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T

M. Gabrielle Thodas
Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, Oregon State University, Biology, 1972
DDS, University of the Pacific, General Dentistry, 1977
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 1995

Miroslav Tolar
Associate Professor of Orthodontics
MD, Charles University School of Medicine, 1965
PhD, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences Charles University School of Medicine, Postgraduate Program in Physiology, 1970
University of California in San Francisco, Postgraduate course in biostatistics biomodeling, 1993

Marie Milena Tolarova
Professor of Orthodontics
Gymnasium, Tabor, Czechoslovakia, College education, 1959
MD, Charles University School of Medicine, Medicine, 1965
PhD, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences Charles University School of Medicine, Prague, Czechoslovakia, Human Genetics, 1979
Board Cert, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Prague, Czechoslovakia, Medical Genetics, Board Certificate, 1985
Board Cert, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Prague, Czechoslovakia, Pediatrics, Board Certificate, 1985
DSc, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechoslovakia, Medical Genetics, 1986

Walied Touni
Instructor of Orthodontics
Faculty of Sciences, Cairo, Egypt, Preliminary Natural Sciences (certificate), 1990
BDS, CAIRO University, Cairo, Egypt, Dentistry, 1994
Cairo University, Egypt, General Practice Residency, 1995
Cairo University, Egypt, prosthodontics, 1998
MSD, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, orthodontics, 2012

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V

Armin Vahidnia
Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BA, University of California, Berkeley, Molecular Cell Biology (Neurobiology, 2007
DDS, University of the Pacific, dentistry, 2012
Ohio State University, Orthodontic Internship, 2014
MSD, University of the Pacific, orthodontics, 2016

Maureen Ann Valley
Associate Professor of Orthodontics
BA, University of California, Biology (High Honors), 1987
DMD, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Dentistry (Cum Laude, 1992
MPH, Harvard School of Public Health, Public Management and Community Health, 1992
MS, Northwestern University Dental School, Orthodontics, 1997

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Y

Jennifer Yau
Instructor of Orthodontics
BS, University of the Pacific, Biology, 2009
DDS, University of California, Los Angeles, Doctor of Dental Surgery,, 2013
MSD, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Certificate in Orthodontics, 2015

A

Arash Abolfazlian
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, Industrial Technology and Biology, 2007
DDS, University of the Pacific, Dentistry, 2011
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 2013

Tarek Abousheta
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
BDS, University of Alexandria, Faculty of Dentistry, Dentistry, 2004
University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, Orofacial pain shadowing program, 2009
DDS, University of Southern California, Dentistry, 2012
University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Craniofacial Molecular Genetics Research Fellowship, 2013
MSD, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2016

Hesham Amer
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BDS, Cairo University (Cairo, Egypt), General Dentistry, 1995
MS, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2001

Christopher Anderson
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, Santa Clara University, Biology, 2001
DDS, University of the Pacific, Dentistry, 2004
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 2006

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B

Marta Parisek Baird
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of the Pacific, Biology, 2005
DDS, University of the Pacific, Dentistry, 2008
Western Regional Board Exam, successfully completed, 2008
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 2011
American Board of Orthodontics, Diplomate, 2012

Thomas Reed Bales
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
University of California Davis, 1971
DDS, University of the Pacific, School of Dentistry, Dental, 1974
Certificate, UCLA, Orthodontics, 1976

Matthew K Bruner
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
Interlake High School, 1990
BS, Pacific Lutheran University, Biology, 1994
DDS, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry, Dentistry, 1998
Army, Flight Surgeon Primary Course, 2000
MS, University of Louisville, Orthodontics, 2004

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C

Sean K. Carlson
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BA, University of California, Santa Barbara, Biology, 1989
DMD, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Dentistry, 1994
MS, University of California, San Francisco, Oral Biology, 1998
University of California, San Francisco, Orthodontics Certificate, 1998

Thad Champlin
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
AA, Santa Monica College, Pre-Dent, 1963
BS, Cal State University Long Beach, Zoology (Pre-Dent), 1965
DDS, USC, Dentistry, 1969
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 1984

Vanessa Chong
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
Other, Appleby College, 2006
Other, University of Western Ontario, Honours Pathology and Toxicology Program, 2009
DDS, University of Toronto, Doctor of Dental Surgery (awarded with honours), 2013

Lani Chun
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of Utah, Major: Sociology Minor: Chemistry, 1994
DDS, New York University College of Dentistry, Doctor of Dental Surgery, 1999
Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Hospital Based General Practice, 2000
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 2008

Ronald Chung
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
BA, University of California, Irvine, Cognitive Psychology, 2007
DDS, Ostrow School of Dentistry of University of Southern California, Dentistry, 2014
MSD, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2016

Sarah Chung
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of the Pacific, Biological Sciences, 2003
DDS, University of California San Francisco, dental, 2007
MSD, University of the Pacific, orthodontics, 2012

William A Cole
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
BA, Washington and Jefferson College, Biology, 1981
DMD, New Jersey Dental School, Dental, 1983
Cert, University of California, San Francisco, Orthodontics, 1986

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D

Sam W. Daher
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
DCS, Vanier College, Health Sciences, 1988
McGill University, Pre-Dentistry, 1990
DDS, McGill University, Dentistry, 1994
MS, Universite de Montreal, Orthodontics, 2006

Bill Dischinger
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
Lake Oswego High School, 1990
BS, Oregon State University, Pre Dental, 1994
DMD, Oregon Health Sciences University, Dentistry, 1997
Tufts University, Certificate in Orthodontics, 1999

Steven A. Dugoni
Adjunct Professor of Orthodontics
DMD, Tufts University, 1979
MSD, University of the Pacific, 1981

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F

Daniel Frey
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
Gettysburg College, Focus in Biology, 2006
University of Pittsburgh, Focus in Biology, Pre-Dental Concentration, 2009
DMD, Temple University - Kornberg School of Dentistry, Dentistry, 2013

Stuart Lund Frost
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
Eastman School of Dentistry, Certificate in TMJD, 1988
Arizona State University, 1989
Mesa Community College, 1989
DDS, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Dentistry, 1992
University of Rochester, Eastman Dental Center, Certificate in Orthodontics, 2000

Robert W Fry
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, U of Missouri Kansas City, 1973
MS, Univ of North Carolina, Orthodontics, 1977

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G

Garry G Gast
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, Oregon State Univ., 1967
San Francisco State, 1968
DDS, University Of Detroit, 1972
Cert., Univ. of Calif. San Francisco, Orthodontics, 1977

John P. Gibbs
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of Nebraska, Nebraska, 1954
DDS, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska, Doctor of Dental Surgery, 1956
Other, University of Nebraska, Nebraska, Orthodontics, 1960

Cheryl Guerrero
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
BS, Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, Business Administration, 2003
DDS, UC San Francisco, Dentistry, 2013

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H

Robert S. Haeger
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
University of Michigan, 1983
MS, University of Illinois At Chicago, Orthodontics, 1989
DDS, University of Michigan, Dental, 2011

Stephen J. Hannon
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, Washington Lee University, Chemistry, 1971
DDS, Georgetown University, Dentistry, 1975
MS, West Virginia University, Orthodontics, 1978

Harry H. Hatasaka
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
University of Colorado, 1947
DDS, Northwestern University, 1954
U.S. Public Health Service Hospital, 1955
MSD, University of Washington, 1960

Hyeon-Shik Hwang
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
Other, Yonsei University, Pre-Dentistry, 1979
DDS, Yonsei University, Dentistry, 1983
MSD, Yonsei University, Orthodontics, 1989
PhD, Yonsei University, Orthodontics, 1992

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K

Ehsan Karimian
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry, Dentistry, 2002
MS, Tehran University School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2008
UCLA, Advanced Implantology, 2008
DDS, UCSF School of Dentistry, Dentistry, 2011
MS, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2013

Paul M Kasrovi
Adjunct Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of Southern Cal (USC), Biomedical Engineering, 1984
MS, University of Pennsylvania, Electrical Engineering, 1986
DDS, UCSF, Dental Sciences, 1992
MS, UCSF, orthodontics, oral biology, 1995

Rebecca B Keller
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
Livermore High School, High School Diploma, 1993
University of Southern California, 1995
DDS, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, dentistry, 1998
Certificate, Harvard - Wide General Practice Residency, Hospital Based General Practice Residency, 1999
BA, University of the Pacific, Applied Sciences (awarded in 2000), 2000
Certificate, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, orthodontics, 2003
MSD, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, orthodontics, 2003

Lauri Kim
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
BS, University of California, Berkeley, Nutritional Sciences, 2008
DDS, University of California, Los Angeles School of Dentistry, Dentistry, 2014
MSD, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2016

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L

Jetson Scott Lee
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
AB, University of California, Berkeley, CA, Biological Sciences
DDS, University of the Pacific, School of Dentistry, Dentistry
MSD, University of the Pacific, School of Dentistry, Orthodontics

Victor S. Lee
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
Beijing University, completed two courses of Chinese (Mandarin) Langua, 2002
BS, University of California, Davis, Neurology, Physiology and Behavior: Exercise Biol, 2007
Kyoto Seika University, completed three courses of Japanese Language, 2007
DDS, University of California, Los Angeles School of Dentistry, Dentistry, 2011
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 2013

Donald W. Linck II
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, University of California School, San Francisco, 1963
Columbia University, Orthodontics, 1965

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M

Justin Maccaro
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
BS, Boston College, Biology, Chemistry, 2009
DMD, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, DMD, 2013

Laura Mancini
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
Other, McGill University, Pre Dental in Health Science, 2009
DMD, McGill University, Dentistry, 2013
MSD, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2015

Cameron K. Mashouf
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, University of Tehran, Dentistry, 1967
University of California, Berkeley, Physiology, 1970
Loyola University, Chicago, Certificate in Orthodontics, 1972

Laurie McCullough
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
Diablo Valley College, 2005
University of Queensland, Australia, year-long undergraduate study abroad program, 2006
BS, University of California, Davis, biological sciences, 2007
DDS, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, dentistry, 2011
University of Florida, orthodontic internship, 2012
MSD, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, orthodontics, 2014

Setareh Mozafari
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, Azad University, School of Dentistry, Dental, 2001
DDS, University of Southern California, School of Dentistry, Dental, 2005
University of Rochester, Eastman Dental Center, Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 2007

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P

Cheol-Ho Paik
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, Seoul National University, Dental College, Dentistry, 1983
PhD, Tsurumi University, Dental School, Orthodontics, 1990

Sheetal Patil
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
College of Engineering, Electrical Engineering, 1990
BDS, Govt. of Dental College Hospital, Dentistry, 1996

Thomas R. Pitts
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, Univeristy of the Pacific, 1965
MSD, Univeristy of Washington, 1970
Univeristy of Washington, Certificate, 1970

John M. Pobanz
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
Utah State University, Predental Studies
Weber State University, Predental Studies
DDS, University of Nebraska College of Dentistry, dental, 1996
MS, University of Nebraska College of Dentistry, orthodontics, 1998

Jesse Punch
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
BSc, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Biology, 2009
DMD, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Dentistry, 2013
MSD, University of the Pacific, MS in dentistry, 2015

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R

Sarah Rashid
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BDS, Kings College London, Dentistry, 1993
Royal College of Surgeons of England, Orthodontics Pediatric Dentistry, 1996
MSc, University of London, Orthodontics, 2001
Royal College of Surgeons of England, Orthodontics, 2002

Shikha Rathi
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BDS, D.Y. Patil College of Dentistry, general dentistry, 2004
D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, General Dentistry Internship, 2005
Preceptors, University of Texas HSC San Antonio, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, 2007
Certificate, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, Oral and maxillofacial Radiology, 2010
MS, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, 2011

W. Ron Redmond
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
BA, U C Riverside, Zoology, 1962
DDS, University of the Pacific, Dentistry, 1966
MS, University of Southern California, Orthodontics, 1970

Michael R. Ricupito
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
BA, San Jose State University, Biological Science, Psychology minor, 1980
DDS, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Dentistry, 1983
MS, University of California at Los Angeles School of Dentistry, Oral Biology, 1987
University of California at Los Angeles School of Dentistry, Certificate in Orthodontics, 1987

Straty S. Righellis
Adjunct Associate Professor of Orthodontics
DDS, University of California, Los Angeles, 1971
MSD, University of California, Los Angeles, 1973

Charlene Rocha
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
AA, Chabot College, Hayward California, liberal arts, 2006
BS, University of California, San Diego, biology, 2008
DDS, University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry, dentistry, 2012
MSD, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, orthodontics, 2014

Bert D. Rouleau
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of Vermont, Zoology, Botany, 1975
DMD, Tufts University, Dentistry, 1978
MS, Northwestern University, Pediatric Dentistry, 1980
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 1982

Bertrand Aaron Rouleau
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
Tufts University, 2003
BA, University of San Diego, Psychology, 2007
Other, University of San Francisco, Biological Sciences, 2007
DDS, University of the Pacific, Dentistry, 2011

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S

Trevan Samp
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
AB, Brown University, Biology, 2010
DMD, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, dentistry, 2014
MSD, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, orthodontics, 2016

L. William Schmohl
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of California Berkeley, Business Admin, 1966
U.S. Naval Hospital, Oakland, CA, Externship, 1969
DDS, University of California San Francisco, Dentistry, 1970
MS, Case Western Reserve University, Orthodontics, 1974

Kenneth Shimizu
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of California, Berkeley, Biology, 1980
DDS, University of the Pacific, Dentistry, 1985
MSD, University of the Pacific, Orthodontics, 1987

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V

Adrian M. Vogt
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, University of Western Ontario, Pharmacology Toxicology, 1988
DDS, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, General Dentistry, 1992
MSD, University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 1994
University of the Pacific School of Dentistry, Certificate in Orthodontics, 1994

Shana Vohra
Adjunct Instructor of Orthodontics
BS, University of the Pacific, Biological Sciences, 2011
cert, University of the Pacific, Invisalign Certification, 2013
DDS, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Dentistry, 2014
MSD, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, Orthodontics, 2016

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W

Eric C. Wu
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Orthodontics
BS, Revelle College, University of California San Diego, Biochemistry/Cell Biology, 1995
DMD, University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine, 2000
University of California Los Angeles, Advanced Education in General Dentistry, 2001
Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh, MBA Certificate program, 2004
University of Pittsburgh, Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 2005

Course Descriptions

Predoctoral Courses

OR 144. Human Growth and Development. 1 Unit.

Study of the basic mechanisms of human growth and development with emphasis on craniofacial development. Study of the development of the dentition and occlusion and introduction to malocclusion and its classification. (10 hours lecture. Quarter 3.).

OR 244. Orthodontics. 2 Units.

An introduction to orthodontic diagnostic procedures, comprehensive treatment planning, and various treatment modalities as applied to a full range of malocclusions in a general dental practice. A strong emphasis is placed on the use of the Invisalign appliance and its application in general practice. Other orthodontic appliances covered will be the functional appliance as it relates to early orthodontic treatment and the edgewise appliance in full comprehensive cases. Orthognathic surgical cases and use of microimplants for anchorage will also be reviewed. (20 hours lecture. Quarters 4-5.).

OR 249. Preclinical Orthodontics. 1 Unit.

This preclinical course introduces students to various removable and fixed appliances with primary focus on their application for minor orthodontic movement. Laboratory instruction addresses such areas as fabrication of removable and fixed appliances, cementation of bands, bonding of brackets and placement of arch wires. Lateral head films are traced, measured, analyzed, and discussed with regard to norms and growth patterns. The course also introduces students to 3-D computer technology for the manufacturing of the Invisalign system appliance and the use of this appliance in general practice. Emphasis is placed on critical self-evaluation skills. (12 hours seminar. Quarter 8.).

OR 348. Applied Orthodontics. 1 Unit.

A study of standard orthodontic records and their application to diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment evaluation in the mixed and permanent dentitions. Students will present cases incorporating digital records, cephalometric analysis, photographs, to explain diagnostic, treatment planning, and treatment procedures. (12 hours seminar, 6 hours graduate orthodontic clinic. Quarters 9-10.).

Graduate Courses

OR 401. Cephalometrics. 4 Units.

The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the use of cephalometric radiographs in clinical orthodontics. In addition to understanding basic principles and the historical signficance of cephalometry, students will learn how to interpret various cephalometric analyses that are most commonly used in diagnosis and treatment planning. At the end of this course, students should also be able to perform various methods of superimposition in order to identify and understand changes that occurred during growth and treatment between different lateral cephalometric radiographs. (Quarters 1-2.).

OR 402. Facial Growth. 4 Units.

The purpose of the course is to provide students with scientific literature that supports current knowledge and understanding of basic biological principles on craniofacial growth and development. This course focuses on the basic mechanisms of postnatal growth of the cranium, nasomaxillary complex and mandible, and the clinical application of facial growth principles. (Quarters 3-4.).

OR 403. Critical Thinking - Research Design. 3 Units.

The purpose of the course is to provide students with foundational knowledge on scientific methods, while also honing an ability to critically evaluate the literature and to design a sound research project. (Quarters 2-4.).

OR 404. Research Practicum and Thesis I. 4 Units.

This is an independent research course. Under the guidance of research mentors, students develop research questions, formulate hypotheses and write a formal research proposal that includes a full literature review, statement of material and methods, execution of the research, and appropriate analysis and interpretation of data. This course is designed to enable successful completion of the MS thesis. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 410. Biomechanics. 7 Units.

The purpose of the course is to introduce fundamental concepts for understanding the laws of mechanics and biological responses to force systems used in orthodontic appliances. This is a seminar-based course designed to teach first year residents the basic principles of biomechanics and theories related to planning and designing orthodontic force systems. Students will be expected to read and understand background material in assigned articles & textbooks for seminar discussions. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 411. Craniofacial Biology & Genetics - Genetics in Orthodontics. 6 Units.

In about sixty percent of dental conditions and diseases, genetics plays an important – and sometimes the major – role in etiology. As orthodontics is focusing on treatment of malocclusions and dentofacial deformities, in etiology of which genetics is almost always in the background, it is important for an orthodontist to understand why or how a malocclusion occurs, how it reacts to a treatment plan, to what extent it may be expressed in the next generation, and - last but not least - if it can be prevented. The concepts of heredity and genetics in orthodontics are covered in this course starting with historical Orthodontia Era (1900-1930), through Hereditary vs Environment Era (1930-1970) and Heritability Era (1970-2000) to the present time Orthodontic Genomic Era. Nowadays, genetics is a backbone of personalized medicine and also of personalized orthodontics. Patient’s treatment outcome may be affected by combinations of specific gene mutations not only in orofacial clefts, craniofacial anomalies and malocclusions, but also in external apical root resorption, mandibular morphology, tooth size, hypodontia, and other conditions. Understanding of basic genetic and translational research concepts is needed for precision orthodontics and for utilization of modern genomic information for improved treatment of malocclusions and dentofacial deformities. (Quarters 2-3.).

OR 412. Cleft Lip & Palate/Craniofacial Anomalies - Orofacial Clefts and Abnormal Craniofacial Development. 2 Units.

This course provides information needed for understanding of concepts related to disturbed and compromised craniofacial growth. It forms a necessary background that makes possible to distinguish and diagnose craniofacial abnormalities. Principles of developmental craniofacial biology and craniofacial embryology are reviewed and continuously updated with new findings and discoveries. Particular emphasis is given to molecular regulation of craniofacial morphogenesis, abnormal neural crest formation (leading to Treacher Collins syndrome, Pierre Robin sequence, DiGeorge sequence, and Hemifacial Microsomia), and molecular regulation of skeletal morphogenesis and disorders comprising the FGFR-related craniosynostosis spectrum (Apert, Crouzon, Pfeiffer, Muenke, Jackson-Weiss, and Beare-Stevenson syndromes). In order to build a solid foundation for the clinical dental treatment and, specifically, for orthodontic treatment of orofacial clefts (cleft lip, cleft and palate and cleft palate only) – complex etiology of these anomalies, that is influenced by a genetic background and environmental factors, is explained. Points of origin and importance of precise diagnosis of nonsyndromic and syndromic cases are emphasized. (Quarter 4.).

OR 414. Introduction to Contemporary Orthodontics. 5 Units.

The purpose of the course is to introduce basic artistic skills in contemporary orthodontics. This is a seminar-based course designed for first year residents to review the basic concepts of photography, direct bonding of fixed appliances, 3D imaging, 3D cephalometric analysis, and digital imaging software (2D and 3D).Students will be expected to read and understand background material in assigned articles for seminar discussions.  They are also expected to complete assignments. This course will consist of 17 seminar sessions throughout the first year of residency. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 420. Bone Biology. 1 Unit.

The purpose of this course is for students to gain an understanding of the general biological activities of bone. This is a seminar-based course designed for first year residents to review basic concepts and theories of bone biology, orthodontic tooth movement, and osseointegration of orthodontic microimplants. Students will be expected to read and understand background material in assigned articles & textbooks for seminar discussions. (Quarter 4.).

OR 421. Current Literature Seminar I. 4 Units.

A review of articles appearing in orthodontic and related journals is presented using a seminar format. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 422. Anatomy. 1 Unit.

This course provides a detailed review of anatomic structures of the craniofacial region. Lecture topics include osteology of the skull, innervation and blood supply of the face, muscles of facial expression and mastication, and anatomy of the oral cavity. (Quarter 1.).

OR 423. Comprehensive Case Analysis Seminar I. 4 Units.

The seminar highlights the clinical application of various diagnostic procedures and treatment philosophies and the presentation of practical procedures in the management of unusual problems that can arise during the course of treatment. Basic and applied principles of photography and advances in computer technology are integral to this course. During each session, a Comprehensive Case Analysis is presented by the second year residents. All students then participate in discussion about the case. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 424. Treatment Planning Seminar I. 4 Units.

A case presentation is prepared by the first-year residents to share initial diagnostic records in order to diagnose and treatment plan orthodontic cases. All students then participate in free-format discussion. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 426. Principles of Orthodontic Technique. 5 Units.

This course is designed to provide basic principles on orthodontic tooth movement and fixed appliances by working on typodonts. (Quarters 1-2.).

OR 430. Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment. 6 Units.

The purpose of this course is to provide the student with fundamental knowledge in orthognathic surgery and its role in the orthodontic treatment of skeletal malocclusions. This seminar-based course covers basic concepts involved in surgical orthodontics, which include: diagnosis and treatment planning, pre-surgical orthodontics, surgical procedures utilized by oral surgeons, and post-surgical orthodontics. In addition, topics such as TMJ disorders, Distraction Osteogenesis, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea are discussed. The goal is for the student to understand these surgical concepts and implement them in the clinical treatment of orthognathic surgery patients. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 431. Orthognathic Surgery Seminar I. 4 Units.

This course is a joint seminar for the orthodontic and oral surgery residents that is held once a month during the first and second years of the residency program. The Orthognathic Surgery Seminar consists of case presentations by the Orthodontic and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery faculty and residents. Emphasis is placed on diagnosis, treatment planning, management of pre- & post surgical orthodontic treatment, and understanding of treatment outcome and stability. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 432. Multidisciplinary Seminar I. 4 Units.

The treatment of patients with complex dental and skeletal orthodontic, periodontal, and restorative problems that requires input from a variety of dental specialties is considered. The teaching format includes case presentations by the residents and open discussions of interdisciplinary topics. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 433. Retention Seminar I. 1 Unit.

Long-term post-active treatment records provide invaluable material for studying stability of orthodontic treatment outcome. Each of the second year residents is required to present the long-term post retention patient whose active orthodontic treatment was completed at least ten years prior to the resident’s year of graduation from the program. Faculty and the first year residents are participated in the discussion after the presentation. (Quarter 4.).

OR 434. Introduction to Invisalign. 1 Unit.

Th purpose of this course is to introduce basic knowledge on clinical applications of Invisalign treatment, while also incorporating the latest treatment protocols. (Quarter 1.).

OR 440. Imaging in Orthodontics, TMJ & Airway Consideration. 4 Units.

Orthodontists have a fundamental interest in facial form, facial growth patterns, occlusion and any pathologic conditions that may alter them. Current three dimensional (3D) imaging techniques avaliable for rutine imaging provide the opportunity to utilize a "systems approach" in order to visualize and evaluate the functional and developmental relationships between proximal craniofacial regions. This course will discuss the use of 3D imaging to evaluate the developmental and functional inter-relationships between TMJ, occlusions, airway, and facial growth. (Quarters 2-3.).

OR 441. Orthodontic Treatment of Craniofacial Anomolies. 3 Units.

Understand and relate embryology, abnormal growth and development and sequelae of surgical repair of craniofacial anomalies to the orthodontic treatment of craniofacial anomalies. (Quarters 2-4.).

OR 456. Clinical Orthodontics I. 30 Units.

Clinical orthodontics includes various appliance systems: edgewise appliance (.018 & .022" slot), TAD, self-ligating brackets, fixed-functional appliance (Herbst, Forsus), and Invisalign for adolescent and adult patients. Clinical experience in treating orthodontic patients with a variety of problems is provided. In addition, various orthopedic appliances, including the headgear, face mask, rapid maxillary expander and other fixed auxillary appliances (LLA, TPA, Wilson distalizer) may be incorporated into specific treatment protocols. Patients are treated in the Graduate Orthodontic Clinic every afternoon Monday-Friday, as well as Thursday nights. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 457. Mixed Dentition Orthodontics I. 8 Units.

In addition to a didactic portion that focuses on the review of mixed dentition articles and comprehensive case analyses, this course also includes clinical sessions that provide residents with basic knowledge and experience in treating various malocclusions in the mixed dentition stage. This course provides an understanding of facial growth and occlusal development in the mixed dentition, an ability to diagnosis and treatment plan mixed dentition cases, and an ability to evaluate growth changes and treatment outcomes. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 458. Surgical Orthodontics I. 2 Units.

This course provides clinical experience in analyzing diagnostic records and formulating surgical orthodontic treatment plans for patients with major skeletal and dental disharmonies that require integration of surgical and orthodontic treatment , communication with surgeons, pre-and post- surgical orthodotnic treatment, and evaluation of treatment outcomes. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 459. Clinical Orthodontics in Craniofacial Anomalies I. 2 Units.

This course combines the orthodontic treatment of patients with craniofacial anomalies in the graduate clinic and attending panels provided by comprehensive Oakland Children's Hospital Craniofacial Anomalies Teams. (Quarters 1-4.).

OR 501. Principles of Orthodontics. 8 Units.

Principles of Orthodontics is a literature-based seminar. Each resident will participate in discussion with emphasis on the critical analysis and evaluation of the scientific methodology in the literature reviewed. Topics include Principles of Orthodontics Introduction, Biomechanics, Facial growth, Retention & Relapse, Functional appliances, Intraoral forces, Mandibular motion & Tooth contact, Maxillo-Mandibular references, and Occlusal treatment objectives. Each seminar will focus on the clinical application of the material. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 502. Microimplant & Bone Biology I. 6 Units.

The objective of the course is to comprehensively review the factors related to safety and stability of orthodontic microimplants and their clinical application in orthodontic treatment. Students will be expected to read and understand background material in assigned articles for seminar discussions.  They will also present their own clinical cases that utilized microimplants. (Quarters 5-6.).

OR 503. Research Design I. 4 Units.

An advanced course for orthodontic graduate students in which the nature of hypothesis testing, the process of clinical decision making, and the statistical methodology to be employed in each student’s thesis project is discussed. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 504. Research Practicum and Thesis II. 4 Units.

This is an independent research course. Under the guidance of research mentors, students develop research questions, formulate hypotheses and write a formal research proposal that includes a full literature review, statement of material and methods, execution of the research, and appropriate analysis and interpretation of data. This course is designed to enable successful completion of the MS thesis. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 510. Periodontic-Orthodontic Relations. 8 Units.

This course includes the Orthodontic-Restorative-Periodontal Interface: Esthetic & Functional Considerations, Periodontal and Other Benefits of Two Phase vs. Single Phase Orthodontic Treatment, Clinical Considerations of Orthodontic Root Resorption, Periodontal Considerations in the Orthodontic Treatment of Impacted Teeth, Invisalign treatment. Part II Invisalign Treatment: What are the Latest Innovations from Invisalign and Do They make Possible Now the Successful Treatment of Complex Class, I, II, and III Malocclusions? (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 511. Practice Management I. 3 Units.

The goal of the Practice Management Course is to introduce and familiarize the orthodontic residents with a multitude of basic concepts that include human resource management, management systems, marketing, legal aspects of orthodontics, associateships/practice ownership, and customer service. The course includes: 1) guest lectures by orthodontists, orthodontic consultants, and other professionals connected to the specialty of orthodontics, and 2) private practice office visits both in the San Francisco Bay area and out-of-state. (Quarters 6-8.).

OR 512. Preparation for Specialty Examination. 1 Unit.

This course will prepare the 2nd year residents for the American Board of Orthodontics Written Exam.  This provides a comprehensive review of basic sciences and clinical concepts in orthodontics. This course will consist of 10 seminar sessions during the Winter and Spring quarters of the 2nd year of residency. (Quarter 7.).

OR 513. TMD & Orthodontics. 1 Unit.

Orthodontic treatment has many ramifications for the stomatognathic system. The temporomandibular joint depends on proper occlusion for health and function. This course requires that the student understand the intricacies of the interrelationship between the occlusion and the TMJ, as well as basic management of TMD symptoms. (Quarter 5.).

OR 521. Current Literature Seminar II. 4 Units.

A review of articles appearing in orthodontic and related journals is presented using a seminar format. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 523. Comprehensive Case Analysis Seminar II. 4 Units.

The seminar highlights the clinical application of various diagnostic procedures and treatment philosophies and the presentation of practical procedures in the management of unusual problems that can arise during the course of treatment. Basic and applied principles of photography and advances in computer technology are integral to this course. During each session, a Comprehensive Case Analysis is presented by the second year residents. All students then participate in discussion about the case. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 524. Treatment Planning Seminar II. 4 Units.

A case presentation is prepared by the first-year residents to share initial diagnostic records in order to diagnose and treatment plan orthodontic cases. All students then participate in free-format discussion. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 531. Orthognathic Surgery Seminar II. 4 Units.

This course is a joint seminar for the orthodontic and oral surgery residents that is held once a month during the first and second years of the residency program. The Orthognathic Surgery Seminar consists of case presentations by the Orthodontic and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery faculty and residents. Emphasis is placed on diagnosis, treatment planning, management of pre- & post surgical orthodontic treatment, and understanding of treatment outcome and stability. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 532. Multidisciplinary Seminar II. 4 Units.

The treatment of patients with complex dental and skeletal orthodontic, periodontal, and restorative problems that requires input from a variety of dental specialties is considered. The teaching format includes case presentations by the residents and open discussions of interdisciplinary topics. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 533. Retention Seminar II. 1 Unit.

Long-term post-active treatment records provide invaluable material for studying stability of orthodontic treatment outcome. Each of the second year residents is required to present the long-term post retention patient whose active orthodontic treatment was completed at least ten years prior to the resident’s year of graduation from the program. Faculty and the first year residents are participated in the discussion after the presentation. (Quarter 8.).

OR 556. Clinical Orthodontics II. 40 Units.

Clinical orthodontics includes various appliance systems: edgewise appliance (.018 & .022" slot), TAD, self-ligating brackets, fixed-functional appliance (Herbst, Forsus), and Invisalign for adolescent and adult patients. Clinical experience in treating orthodontic patients with a variety of problems is provided. In addition, various orthopedic appliances, including the headgear, face mask, rapid maxillary expander and other fixed auxillary appliances (LLA, TPA, Wilson distalizer) may be incorporated into specific treatment protocols. Patients are treated in the Graduate Orthodontic Clinic every afternoon Monday-Friday, as well as Thursday nights. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 557. Mixed Dentition Orthodontics II. 8 Units.

In addition to a didactic portion that focuses on the review of mixed dentition articles and comprehensive case analyses, this course also includes clinical sessions that provide residents with basic knowledge and experience in treating various malocclusions in the mixed dentition stage. This course provides an understanding of facial growth and occlusal development in the mixed dentition, an ability to diagnosis and treatment plan mixed dentition cases, and an ability to evaluate growth changes and treatment outcomes. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 558. Surgical Orthodontics II. 2 Units.

This course provides clinical experience in analyzing diagnostic records and formulating surgical orthodontic treatment plans for patients with major skeletal and dental disharmonies that require integration of surgical and orthodontic treatment , communication with surgeons, pre-and post- surgical orthodotnic treatment, and evaluation of treatment outcomes. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 559. Clinical Orthodontics in Craniofacial Anomalies II. 2 Units.

This course combines the orthodontic treatment of patients with craniofacial anomalies in the graduate clinic and attending panels provided by comprehensive KAISER and Oakland Children's Hospital Craniofacial Anomalies Teams. (Quarters 5-8.).

OR 601. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders. 1 Unit.

This course provides an overview of clinical anatomy and mechanics of the TMJ, pathogenesis of degenerative TMD disorders, and various approaches on the management of TMD. (Quarter 9.).

OR 602. Microimplant & Bone Biology II. 1 Unit.

The objective of the course is to comprehensively review the factors related to safety and stability of orthodontic microimplants and their clinical application in orthodontic treatment. Students will be expected to read and understand background material in assigned articles for seminar discussions.  They will also present their own clinical cases that utilized microimplants. This course will consist of 16 seminar sessions throughout the second and third year of residency. (Quarter 9.).

OR 603. Research Design II. 1 Unit.

An advanced course for orthodontic graduate students in which the nature of hypothesis testing, the process of clinical decision making, and the statistical methodology to be employed in each student’s thesis project is discussed. (Quarter 9.).

OR 604. Research Practicum and Thesis III. 6 Units.

This is an independent research course. Under the guidance of research mentors, students develop research questions, formulate hypotheses and write a formal research proposal that includes a full literature review, statement of material and methods, execution of the research, and appropriate analysis and interpretation of data. This course is designed to enable successful completion of the MS thesis. (Quarter 9.).

OR 611. Practice Management II. 1 Unit.

The goal of the Practice Management Course is to introduce and familiarize the orthodontic residents with a multitude of basic concepts that include human resource management, management systems, marketing, legal aspects of orthodontics, associateships/practice ownership, and customer service. The course includes: 1) guest lectures by orthodontists, orthodontic consultants, and other professionals connected to the specialty of orthodontics, and 2) private practice office visits both in the San Francisco Bay area and out-of-state. (Quarter 9.).

OR 612. Ethics. 1 Unit.

This is an intermediate-advanced course that builds on undergraduate ethics instruction and focuses on issues unique to orthodontic practice. Typical or expectable ethical problems in orthodontics are studied. Reflection and student participation is emphasized in discussions of real-life cases. (Quarter 9.).

OR 613. Orthodontics Speaker Series. 2 Units.

This course includes various topics in orthodontics. (Quarter 9.).

OR 621. Current Literature Seminar III. 1 Unit.

A review of articles appearing in orthodontic and related journals is presented using a seminar format. (Quarter 9.).

OR 623. Comprehensive Case Analysis Seminar III. 1 Unit.

The seminar highlights the clinical application of various diagnostic procedures and treatment philosophies and the presentation of practical procedures in the management of unusual problems that can arise during the course of treatment. Basic and applied principles of photography and advances in computer technology are integral to this course. During each session, a Comprehensive Case Analysis is presented by the second year residents. All students then participate in discussion about the case. (Quarter 9.).

OR 624. Treatment Planning Seminar III. 1 Unit.

A case presentation is prepared by the first-year residents to share initial diagnostic records in order to diagnose and treatment plan orthodontic cases. All students then participate in free-format discussion. (Quarter 9.).

OR 631. Orthognathic Surgery Seminar III. 1 Unit.

This course is a joint seminar for the orthodontic and oral surgery residents that is held once a month during the first and second years of the residency program. The Orthognathic Surgery Seminar consists of case presentations by the Orthodontic and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery faculty and residents. Emphasis is placed on diagnosis, treatment planning, management of pre- & post surgical orthodontic treatment, and understanding of treatment outcome and stability. (Quarter 9.).

OR 632. Multidisciplinary Seminar III. 1 Unit.

The treatment of patients with complex dental and skeletal orthodontic, periodontal, and restorative problems that requires input from a variety of dental specialties is considered. The teaching format includes case presentations by the residents and open discussions of interdisciplinary topics. (Quarter 9.).

OR 656. Clinical Orthodontics III. 10 Units.

Clinical orthodontics includes various appliance systems: edgewise appliance (.018 & .022" slot), TAD, self-ligating brackets, fixed-functional appliance (Herbst, Forsus), and Invisalign for adolescent and adult patients. Clinical experience in treating orthodontic patients with a variety of problems is provided. In addition, various orthopedic appliances, including the headgear, face mask, rapid maxillary expander and other fixed auxillary appliances (LLA, TPA, Wilson distalizer) may be incorporated into specific treatment protocols. Patients are treated in the Graduate Orthodontic Clinic every afternoon Monday-Friday, as well as Thursday nights. (Quarter 9.).

OR 657. Mixed Dentition Orthodontics III. 2 Units.

In addition to a didactic portion that focuses on the review of mixed dentition articles and comprehensive case analyses, this course also includes clinical sessions that provide residents with basic knowledge and experience in treating various malocclusions in the mixed dentition stage. This course provides an understanding of facial growth and occlusal development in the mixed dentition, an ability to diagnosis and treatment plan mixed dentition cases, and an ability to evaluate growth changes and treatment outcomes. (Quarter 9.).

OR 658. Surgical Orthodontics III. 1 Unit.

This course provides clinical experience in analyzing diagnostic records and formulating surgical orthodontic treatment plans for patients with major skeletal and dental disharmonies that require integration of surgical and orthodontic treatment , communication with surgeons, pre-and post- surgical orthodotnic treatment, and evaluation of treatment outcomes. (Quarter 9.).

OR 659. Clinical Orthodontics in Craniofacial Anomalies III. 1 Unit.

This course combines the orthodontic treatment of patients with craniofacial anomalies in the graduate clinic and attending panels provided by comprehensive KAISER and Oakland Children's Hospital Craniofacial Anomalies Teams. (Quarter 9.).